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  1. Abstract

    We report superluminal jet motion with an apparent speed ofβapp= 1.65 ± 0.57 in the radio-quiet (RQ) low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) galaxy KISSR 872. This result comes from two-epoch phase-referenced very long baseline interferometry observations at 5 GHz. The detection of bulk relativistic motion in the jet of this extremely radio-faint active galactic nucleus (AGN), with a total 1.4 GHz flux density of 5 mJy in the 5.″4 resolution Very Large Array FIRST survey image and 1.5 mJy in the ∼5 mas resolution Very Long Baseline Array image, is the first of its kind in an RQ LINER galaxy. The presence of relativistic jets in lower accretion rate objects like KISSR 872, with an Eddington ratio of 0.04, reveals that even RQ AGN can harbor relativistic jets and provides evidence of their universality over a wide range of accretion powers.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2025
  2. Abstract

    Dormancy is an adaptation to living in fluctuating environments. It allows individuals to enter a reversible state of reduced metabolic activity when challenged by unfavorable conditions. Dormancy can also influence species interactions by providing organisms with a refuge from predators and parasites. Here we test the hypothesis that, by generating a seed bank of protected individuals, dormancy can modify the patterns and processes of antagonistic coevolution. We conducted a factorially designed experiment where we passaged a bacterial host (Bacillus subtilis) and its phage (SPO1) in the presence versus absence of a seed bank consisting of dormant endospores. Owing in part to the inability of phages to attach to spores, seed banks stabilized population dynamics and resulted in minimum host densities that were 30-fold higher compared to bacteria that were unable to engage in dormancy. By supplying a refuge to phage-sensitive strains, we show that seed banks retained phenotypic diversity that was otherwise lost to selection. Dormancy also stored genetic diversity. After characterizing allelic variation with pooled population sequencing, we found that seed banks retained twice as many host genes with mutations, whether phages were present or not. Based on mutational trajectories over the course of the experiment, we demonstrate that seed banks can dampen bacteria-phage coevolution. Not only does dormancy create structure and memory that buffers populations against environmental fluctuations, it also modifies species interactions in ways that can feed back onto the eco-evolutionary dynamics of microbial communities.

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    We examine the Fundamental Plane of black hole activity for correlations with redshift and radio loudness in both radio-loud and radio-quiet quasar populations. Sources are compiled from archival data of both radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars over redshifts 0.1 < z < 5.0 to produce a sample of 353 sources with known X-ray, radio, and black hole mass measurements. A Fundamental Plane of accretion activity is fit to a sample of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, and we find a dichotomy between radio-loud and radio-quiet sources. The set of best-fitting equations that best describe the two samples are log LR = (1.12 ± 0.06)log LX − (0.20 ± 0.07)log M − (5.64 ± 2.99) for our radio-loud sample and log LR = (0.48 ± 0.06)log LX + (0.50 ± 0.08)log M + (15.26 ± 2.66) for our radio-quiet sample. Our results suggest that the average radio-quiet quasar emission is consistent with advection-dominated accretion, while a combination of jet and disc emission dominates in radio-loud quasars. We additionally examine redshift trends amongst the radio-loud and radio-quiet samples, and we observe a redshift dependence for the Fundamental Plane of radio-loud quasars. Lastly, we utilize the Fundamental Plane as a black hole mass estimation method and determine it useful in studying systems where standard spectral modelling techniques are not viable.

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