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  1. Abstract

    The major ion chemistry of the ocean has been assumed to be controlled by river input, hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges, carbonate production, and low-temperature alteration of seafloor basalt, but marine chemical budgets remain difficult to balance. Here we propose that large-scale groundwater flow and diagenetic reactions in continental shelf sediments have been overlooked as an important contributor to major ion budgets in the ocean. Based on data synthesized from 17 passive margin basins, continental shelves contribute fluid exchanges comparable to hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges. Chemical exchange is similarly significant, indicating removal of Mg2+from the oceans at rates similar to mid-ocean ridge convection. Continental shelves likely contribute Ca2+and K+to the oceans at rates that, in combination with low-temperature basalt alteration, can close current budget deficits. Flow and reaction in continental shelf sediments should be included in a new generation of studies addressing marine isotope budgets.

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  2. Abstract

    Globular clusters (GCs) are particularly efficient at forming millisecond pulsars. Among these pulsars, about half lack a companion star, a significantly higher fraction than in the Galactic field. This fraction increases further in some of the densest GCs, especially those that have undergone core collapse, suggesting that dynamical interaction processes play a key role. For the first time, we createN-body models that reproduce the ratio of single-to-binary pulsars in Milky Way–like GCs. We focus especially on NGC 6752, a typical core-collapsed cluster with many observed millisecond pulsars. Previous studies suggested that an increased rate of neutron star binary disruption in the densest clusters could explain the overabundance of single pulsars in these systems. Here, we demonstrate that binary disruption is ineffective and instead we propose that two additional dynamical processes play dominant roles: (1) tidal disruption of main-sequence stars by neutron stars and (2) gravitational collapse of heavy white dwarf binary merger remnants. Neutron stars formed through these processes may also be associated with fast radio bursts similar to those observed recently in an extragalactic GC.

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  3. We have predicted acid dissociation constants (pKa), octanol–water partition coefficients (KOW), and DMPC lipid membrane–water partition coefficients (Klipid-w) of 150 different eight-carbon-containing poly-/perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (C8-PFCAs) utilizing the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvents (COSMO-RS) theory. Different trends associated with functionalization, degree of fluorination, degree of saturation, degree of chlorination, and branching are discussed on the basis of the predicted values for the partition coefficients. In general, functionalization closest to the carboxylic headgroup had the greatest impact on the value of the predicted physicochemical properties. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 12, 2025
  4. Nano-scale extracellular vesicles are lipid-bilayer delimited particles that are naturally secreted by all cells and have emerged as valuable biomarkers for a wide range of diseases. Efficient isolation of small extracellular vesicles while maintaining yield and purity is crucial to harvest their potential in diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. Most conventional methods of isolation suffer from significant shortcomings, including low purity or yield, long duration, need for large sample volumes, specialized equipment, trained personnel, and high costs. To address some of these challenges, our group has reported a novel insulator-based dielectrophoretic device for rapid isolation of small extracellular vesicles from biofluids and cell culture media based on their size and dielectric properties. In this study, we report a comprehensive characterization of small extracellular vesicles isolated from cancer-patients’ biofluids at a twofold enrichment using the device. The three-fold characterization that was performed using conventional flow cytometry, advanced imaging flow cytometry, and microRNA sequencing indicated high yield and purity of the isolated small extracellular vesicles. The device thus offers an efficient platform for rapid isolation while maintaining biomolecular integrity. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  5. Abstract

    Microbial community dynamics on sinking particles control the amount of carbon that reaches the deep ocean and the length of time that carbon is stored, with potentially profound impacts on Earth’s climate. A mechanistic understanding of the controls on sinking particle distributions has been hindered by limited depth- and time-resolved sampling and methods that cannot distinguish individual particles. Here, we analyze microbial communities on nearly 400 individual sinking particles in conjunction with more conventional composite particle samples to determine how particle colonization and community assembly might control carbon sequestration in the deep ocean. We observed community succession with corresponding changes in microbial metabolic potential on the larger sinking particles transporting a significant fraction of carbon to the deep sea. Microbial community richness decreased as particles aged and sank; however, richness increased with particle size and the attenuation of carbon export. This suggests that the theory of island biogeography applies to sinking marine particles. Changes in POC flux attenuation with time and microbial community composition with depth were reproduced in a mechanistic ecosystem model that reflected a range of POC labilities and microbial growth rates. Our results highlight microbial community dynamics and processes on individual sinking particles, the isolation of which is necessary to improve mechanistic models of ocean carbon uptake.

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  6. Abstract

    Understanding spatial development of a turbulent mixing layer is essential for many engineering applications. However, the flow development is difficult to replicate in physical or numerical experiments. For this reason, the most attractive method for the mixing layer analysis is the direct numerical simulation (DNS), with the most control over the simulation inputs and free from modeling assumptions. On the other hand, the DNS cost often prevents conducting the sensitivity analysis of the simulation results to variations in the numerical procedure and thus, separating numerical and physical effects. In this paper, effects of the computational domain dimensions on statistics collected from DNS of a spatially developing incompressible turbulent mixing layer are analyzed with the focus on determining the domain dimensions suitable for studying the flow asymptotic state. In the simulations, the mixing layer develops between two coflowing laminar boundary layers formed on two sides of a sharp-ended splitter plate of a finite thickness with characteristics close to those of the untripped boundary layers in the experiments by Bell and Mehta, AIAA J., 28(12), 2034 (1990). The simulations were conducted using the spectral-element code Nek5000.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  7. Traditionally, quantitative lidar techniques like differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) utilize high-power-aperture product designs, which partially compensates for the need to take discrete deriva-tives of noisy data in post-processing (for number density for DIAL and extinction for HSRL) and provides for high-performance measurements, i.e., higher resolu-tion, accuracy, or precision. Conversely, low-power-aperture product lidar designs are easier to make eye-safe, reliable, and cost-effective, which are important attributes for network development and field deployment. The atmospheric science community has expressed the need for high-quality, quantitative, robust, network deployable, and cost-effective sensors for a variety of applications such as improved numerical weather forecasting – in essence requiring the best of both worlds without the accompanying drawbacks. In response to this need, the National Center for Atmospheric Research and Montana State University have been developing the MicroPulse DIAL (MPD) architecture for thermodynamic profiling in the lower atmosphere. The MPD architecture takes advantage of the benefits of low-power, low-cost laser diodes, and fiber optics to achieve quantitative profiling leverag-ing narrowband filtering and efficient elastic scattering. A field-deployable MPD instrument capable of humidity, quantitative aerosol, and temperature profiling has recently been developed. This presentation will describe the current status of this thermodynamic profiler and the initial results from a recent field deployment. Emphasis will be given to the analysis of the temperature data including compar-isons to co-located radiosondes to describe current performance. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  8. Abstract

    The Midwest of the USA is a highly productive agricultural region, in part due to the installation of perforated subsurface pipes, known as tile drains that remove excess water from wet soils. Tile drains rapidly move water to nearby streams, influencing how quickly streamflow rises and falls (i.e., streamflow “flashiness”). Currently, there are no comprehensive studies that compare the extent to which tile drainage influences flashiness across large and diverse agricultural regions. We address this knowledge gap by examining growing‐season (April–October) flashiness using the Richards‐Baker Index (RBI) in 139 watersheds located throughout the Midwest. Using a spatial tile‐drainage dataset, watersheds were split into low, medium, and high tile‐drainage classes. We found no significant differences between the flashiness of these three classes using a one‐way Kruskal–Wallis test. When watersheds were separated into infiltration groups to help control for different soil types, the high tile‐drainage class RBI was significantly higher than the low tile‐drainage class RBI in the high infiltration group. To further understand the causes of flashiness, additional environmental variables and their relationship to flashiness were examined using multivariate regression. In the low infiltration group, tile drainage significantly reduced flashiness, with watershed area and average depth to water table being the largest influences on flashiness. Tile drainage produced a larger reduction in flashiness in the high infiltration watersheds, with the largest influences being percent clay in the watershed and watershed area. These results indicate that the influence of tile drainage on flashiness emerges only after other watershed variables are accounted for. Given that tile drainage may increase in the future as precipitation patterns and extremes change, flashiness will likely continue to be modified. These results lead to an improved understanding of flood‐generating and nutrient transport mechanisms that are relevant to stakeholders across a wide range of sectors.

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  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024