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  1. Abstract

    Terzan 5 is a rich globular cluster within the galactic bulge containing 39 known millisecond pulsars, the largest known population of any globular cluster. These faint pulsars do not have sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) to measure reliable flux density or polarization information from individual observations in general. We combined over 5.2 days of archival data, at 1500 and 2000 MHz, taken with the Green Bank Telescope over the past 12 years. We created high-S/N profiles for 32 of the pulsars and determined precise rotation measures (RMs) for 28. We used the RMs, pulsar positions, and dispersion measures to map the projected parallel component of the Galactic magnetic field toward the cluster. The 〈B∣∣〉 shows a rough gradient of ∼6 nG arcsec−1(∼160 nG pc−1) or, fractionally, a change of ∼20% in the R.A. direction across the cluster, implying Galactic magnetic field variability at sub-parsec scales. We also measured average flux densitiesSνfor the pulsars, ranging from ∼10μJy to ∼2 mJy, and an average spectral indexα= −1.35, whereSννα. This spectral index is flatter than most known pulsars, likely a selection effect due to the high frequencies used in pulsar searches to mitigate dispersion and scattering. We used flux densities from each observationmore »to constrain the scintillation properties toward the cluster, finding strong refractive modulation on timescales of months. The inferred pulsar luminosity function is roughly power law, with slope(dlogN)/(dlogL)=1at the high-luminosity end. At the low-luminosity end, there are incompleteness effects, implying that Terzan 5 contains many more pulsars.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 8, 2022
  2. Abstract

    Local feature attribution methods are increasingly used to explain complex machine learning models. However, current methods are limited because they are extremely expensive to compute or are not capable of explaining a distributed series of models where each model is owned by a separate institution. The latter is particularly important because it often arises in finance where explanations are mandated. Here, we present Generalized DeepSHAP (G-DeepSHAP), a tractable method to propagate local feature attributions through complex series of models based on a connection to the Shapley value. We evaluate G-DeepSHAP across biological, health, and financial datasets to show that it provides equally salient explanations an order of magnitude faster than existing model-agnostic attribution techniques and demonstrate its use in an important distributed series of models setting.

  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2023
  4. Abstract Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) was utilized to create a series of aluminum alloy (i.e., AlSi10Mg) 5 mm-diameter support pillars with a fixed height of 5 mm containing varying filet angles and build orientations (i.e., 0 deg, 10 deg, 20 deg, 30 deg, 40 deg, 50 deg, and 60 deg from the normal surface) to determine surface roughness and water wettability effects. From experiments, anisotropic wetting was observed due in part to the surface heterogeneity created by the LPBF process. The powder-sourced AlSi10Mg alloy, typically hydrophobic, exhibited primarily hydrophilic behavior for build angles of 0 deg and 60 deg, a mix of hydrophobic and hydrophilic behavior at build angles of 10 deg and 20 deg, and hydrophobic behavior at 30 deg, 40 deg, and 50 deg build angles. Measured surface roughness, Ra, ranged from 5 to 36 µm and varied based on location. 3D-topography maps were generated, and arithmetic mean heights, Sa, of 15.52–21.71 µm were observed; the anisotropy of roughness altered the wetting behavior, thereby prompting some hydrophilic behavior. Build angles of 30 deg and 40 deg provided for the smoothest surfaces. A significantly rougher surface was found for the 50 deg build angle. This abnormally high roughnessmore »is attributed to the melt pool contact angle having maximal capillarity with the surrounding powder bed. In this study, the critical melt pool contact angle was near equal to the build angle, suggesting that a critical build angle exists, which gives rise to pronounced melt pool wetting behavior and increased surface roughness due to enhanced wicking followed by solidification.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2023
  6. Abstract Close encounters between neutron stars and main-sequence stars occur in globular clusters and may lead to various outcomes. Here we study encounters resulting in the tidal disruption of the star. Using N -body models, we predict the typical stellar masses in these disruptions and the dependence of the event rate on the host cluster properties. We find that tidal disruption events occur most frequently in core-collapsed globular clusters and that roughly 25% of the disrupted stars are merger products (i.e., blue straggler stars). Using hydrodynamic simulations, we model the tidal disruptions themselves (over timescales of days) to determine the mass bound to the neutron star and the properties of the accretion disks formed. In general, we find roughly 80%–90% of the initial stellar mass becomes bound to the neutron star following disruption. Additionally, we find that neutron stars receive impulsive kicks of up to about 20 km s −1 as a result of the asymmetry of unbound ejecta; these kicks place these neutron stars on elongated orbits within their host cluster, with apocenter distances well outside the cluster core. Finally, we model the evolution of the (hypercritical) accretion disks on longer timescales (days to years after disruption) to estimatemore »the accretion rate onto the neutron stars and accompanying spin-up. As long as ≳1% of the bound mass accretes onto the neutron star, millisecond spin periods can be attained. We argue the growing numbers of isolated millisecond pulsars observed in globular clusters may have formed, at least in part, through this mechanism. In the case of significant mass growth, some of these neutron stars may collapse to form low-mass (≲3 M ⊙ ) black holes.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  7. Prairie strips planted into crop fields offer multiple environmental benefits. This study estimates the willingness of U.S. farmers to convert 5% of their largest corn-soybean field to prairie strips in exchange for payment. Using stated preference results to estimate land supply, we find that 20% of farmers are willing to adopt prairie strips at payments equivalent to average Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) rental rates, corresponding to potential conversion of 90,000 acres on 1.8m acres of cropland. Farmers are likelier to adopt in smaller fields and when they perceive that prairie strips will benefit environmental quality or agricultural productivity.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  8. Abstract

    High-throughput scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with classification using neural networks is an ideal method to determine the morphological handedness of large populations of chiral nanoparticles. Automated labeling removes the time-consuming manual labeling of training data, but introduces label error, and subsequently classification error in the trained neural network. Here, we evaluate methods to minimize classification error when training from automated labels of SEM datasets of chiral Tellurium nanoparticles. Using the mirror relationship between images of opposite handed particles, we artificially create populations of varying label error. We analyze the impact of label error rate and training method on the classification error of neural networks on an ideal dataset and on a practical dataset. Of the three training methods considered, we find that a pretraining approach yields the most accurate results across label error rates on ideal datasets, where size and other morphological variables are held constant, but that a co-teaching approach performs the best in practical application.

  9. Macrocyclic poly(glycidyl phenyl ether) (pGPE) synthesized via zwitterionic ring opening polymerization is typically contaminated by chains with linear and tadpole architecture. Although mass spectrometry (MS) analysis can readily confirm the presence of the linear byproduct, due to its unique mass, it is unable to differentiate between the cyclic and tadpole structures, which are constitutional isomers produced by backbiting reactions in monomeric or dimeric chains, respectively. To overcome this problem, ultraperformance reversed-phase liquid chromatography interfaced with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was employed. The separation achieved by UPLC revealed that the tadpole isomer elutes before the cyclic structure because of the increased polarity afforded by its distinctive substituents. The ratio of tadpole to cyclic species increased with the degree of polymerization, in agreement with the synthetic method used, as the potential for forming tadpole structures by backbiting is entropically favored in longer polymer chains. Once separated, the two isomers could be independently characterized by tandem mass spectrometry. The macrocyclic and tadpole species exhibit unique fragmentation patterns, including structurally diagnostic fragments for each structure.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 17, 2023
  10. Abstract

    Understanding the response of tropical cyclone precipitation to ongoing climate change is essential to determine associated flood risk. However, instrumental records are short-term and fail to capture the full range of variability in seasonal totals of precipitation from tropical cyclones. Here we present a 473-year-long tree-ring proxy record comprised of longleaf pine from excavated coffins, a historical house, remnant stumps, and living trees in southern Mississippi, USA. We use cross-dating dendrochronological analyses calibrated with instrumental records to reconstruct tropical cyclone precipitation stretching back to 1540 CE. We compare this record to potential climatic controls of interannual and multidecadal tropical cyclone precipitation variability along the Gulf Coast. We find that tropical cyclone precipitation declined significantly in the two years following large Northern Hemisphere volcanic eruptions and is influenced by the behavior of the North Atlantic subtropical high-pressure system. Additionally, we suggest that tropical cyclone precipitation variability is significantly, albeit weakly, related to Atlantic multidecadal variability. Finally, we suggest that we need to establish a network for reconstructing precipitation from tropical cyclones in the Southeast USA if we want to capture regional tropical cyclone behavior and associated flood risks.