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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 27, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Quantifying the temperature sensitivity of methane (CH4) production is crucial for predicting how wetland ecosystems will respond to climate warming. Typically, the temperature sensitivity (often quantified as a Q10value) is derived from laboratory incubation studies and then used in biogeochemical models. However, studies report wide variation in incubation-inferred Q10values, with a large portion of this variation remaining unexplained. Here we applied observations in a thawing permafrost peatland (Stordalen Mire) and a well-tested process-rich model (ecosys) to interpret incubation observations and investigate controls on inferred CH4production temperature sensitivity. We developed a field-storage-incubation modeling approach to mimic the full incubation sequence, including field sampling at a particular time in the growing season, refrigerated storage, and laboratory incubation, followed by model evaluation. We found that CH4production rates during incubation are regulated by substrate availability and active microbial biomass of key microbial functional groups, which are affected by soil storage duration and temperature. Seasonal variation in substrate availability and active microbial biomass of key microbial functional groups led to strong time-of-sampling impacts on CH4production. CH4production is higher with less perturbation post-sampling, i.e. shorter storage duration and lower storage temperature. We found a wide range of inferred Q10values (1.2–3.5), which we attribute to incubation temperatures, incubation duration, storage duration, and sampling time. We also show that Q10values of CH4production are controlled by interacting biological, biochemical, and physical processes, which cause the inferred Q10values to differ substantially from those of the component processes. Terrestrial ecosystem models that use a constant Q10value to represent temperature responses may therefore predict biased soil carbon cycling under future climate scenarios.

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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 23, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  6. This article presents tactile drafting techniques developed in collaboration with blind educators and students that have the potential to increase BLV students’ access to drafting and engineering graphic curriculum in K-12 and higher education. This work builds on previous work funded by the National Science Foundation (Goodridge et al., 2019; Ashby et al., 2018; Lopez et al., 2020; Goodridge et al., 2021a; Goodridge et al., 2021b) and it is the authors’ hope that some of the practices included herein will allow BLV youth to further develop technological and engineering literacy in related technology and engineering graphics courses. 
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  7. Growing vegetables in controlled environments (CEs), such as hydroponics, aquaponics, and vertical structures, is a rapidly expanding industry in Florida and the United States, especially in nearby urban areas. Although lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ) is still mostly produced in fields, growing in CEs proximal to urban areas has become increasingly popular because it may facilitate reduced transportation time and associated postharvest degradation. Lettuce is among the top-most consumed vegetables in the United States and could provide some of the nutrition missing in the US diet. This research was planned to understand the levels of some vitamins that are key for human health, including vitamin E (tocopherols), vitamin K 1 (phylloquinone), and vitamin C (ascorbic acid), in lettuce grown in greenhouse hydroponics. Lettuce germplasm was grown using the hydroponic nutrient film technique system in three greenhouse experiments: at the beginning, middle, and end of the Florida, USA, growing season (from Aug 2020 to Mar 2021). Genetic variation for these vitamins were found among the germplasm tested in the four morphological types of lettuce, romaine, Boston, Latin, and leaf. In addition, a sugar analysis was conducted in this germplasm, of which fructose was the most abundant sugar. A significant genotype × environment (G × E) interaction was observed, indicating that the levels of these compounds, especially vitamins, was environment dependent. However, the presence of certain non-crossover G × E interactions indicates that selecting lettuce in a representative environment could result in new cultivars with higher vitamin content. This research marks the initial steps to improve lettuce for these vitamins, which can contribute to better health of US consumers, not for the highest amount of these compounds in lettuce but for the offset due to its high consumption. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  8. Teherani, Ferechteh H. ; Rogers, David J. (Ed.)
    We demonstrated a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of smooth, thick, and monoclinic phase-pure gallium oxide (Ga2O3) on c-plane sapphire using silicon-oxygen bonding (SiOx) as a phase stabilizer. The corundum (α), monoclinic (β), and orthorhombic (ε) phases of Ga2O3 with a bandgap in the 4.4 – 5.1 eV range, are promising materials for power semiconductor devices and deep ultraviolet (UV) solar-blind photodetectors. The MOCVD systems are extensively used for homoepitaxial growth of β-Ga2O3 on (001), (100), (010), and (¯2 01) β-Ga2O3 substrates. These substrates are rare/expensive and have very low thermal conductivity; thus, are not suitable for high-power semiconductor devices. The c-plane sapphire is typically used as a substrate for high-power devices. The β-Ga2O3 grows in the (¯2 01) direction on sapphire. In this direction, the presence of high-density oxygen dangling bonds, frequent stacking faults, twinning, and other phases and planes impede the heteroepitaxy of thick β-Ga2O3. Previously phase stabilizations with SiOx have been reported for tetragonal and monoclinic hafnia. We were able to grow ~580nm thick β-Ga2O3 on sapphire by MOCVD at 750 oC through phase stabilization using silane. The samples grown with silane have a reduction in the surface roughness and resistivity from 10.7 nm to 4.4 nm and from 371.75 Ω.cm to 135.64 Ω.cm, respectively. These samples show a pure-monoclinic phase determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD); have tensile strain determined by Raman strain mapping. These results show that a thick, phase-pure -Ga2O3 can be grown on c-plane sapphire which can be suitable for creating power devices with better thermal management. 
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  9. Morkoç, Hadis ; Fujioka, Hiroshi ; Schwarz, Ulrich T. (Ed.)
    We report the gate leakage current and threshold voltage characteristics of Al0.3Ga0.7N/GaN heterojunction field effect transistor (HFET) with metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) grown β-Ga2O3 as a gate dielectric for the first time. In this study, GaN channel HFET and β-Ga2O3 passivated metal-oxide-semiconductor-HFET (MOS-HFET) structures were grown in MOCVD using N2 as carrier gas on a sapphire substrate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the structural properties and surface morphology of the heterostructure. The electrical properties were analyzed using van der Pauw, Hall, and the mercury probe capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement systems. The 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) carrier density for the heterostructure was found to be in the order of ~1013 cm-2. The threshold voltage shifted more towards the negative side for the MOSHFET. The high-low (Hi-Lo) frequency-based C-V method was used to calculate the interface charge density for the oxide-AlGaN interface and was found to be in the order of ~1012 cm2eV-1. A remarkable reduction in leakage current from 2.33×10-2 A/cm2 for HFET to 1.03×10-8 A/cm2 for MOSHFET was observed demonstrating the viability of MOCVD-grown Ga2O3 as a gate dielectric. 
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