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  1. Abstract

    Despite the rapid progress and interest in brain-machine interfaces that restore motor function, the performance of prosthetic fingers and limbs has yet to mimic native function. The algorithm that converts brain signals to a control signal for the prosthetic device is one of the limitations in achieving rapid and realistic finger movements. To achieve more realistic finger movements, we developed a shallow feed-forward neural network to decode real-time two-degree-of-freedom finger movements in two adult male rhesus macaques. Using a two-step training method, a recalibrated feedback intention–trained (ReFIT) neural network is introduced to further improve performance. In 7 days of testing across two animals, neural network decoders, with higher-velocity and more natural appearing finger movements, achieved a 36% increase in throughput over the ReFIT Kalman filter, which represents the current standard. The neural network decoders introduced herein demonstrate real-time decoding of continuous movements at a level superior to the current state-of-the-art and could provide a starting point to using neural networks for the development of more naturalistic brain-controlled prostheses.

  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  4. Abstract

    Single crystalline BaMnSb2is considered as a 3D Weyl semimetal with the 2D electronic structure containing Dirac cones from the Sb sheet. We report experimental investigation of low-temperature cleaved BaMnSb2surfaces using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction. By natural cleavage, we find two terminations: one is Ba (above the orthorhombically distorted Sb sheet) and another Sb2 (at the surface of the Sb/Mn/Sb sandwich layer). Both terminations show the 2 × 1 surface reconstructions, with drastically different morphologies and electronic properties, however. The reconstructed structures, defect types and nature of the electronic structures of the two terminations are extensively studied. The quasiparticle interference (QPI) analysis is conducted at the energy range between −2 V and 2 V, although no interesting states are observed near the Fermi level, the surface-projected electronic band structures strongly depend on the surface termination above 1.6 V. The existence of defects can greatly modify the local density of states to create electronic phase separations on the surface in the order of tens of nm scale. Our observation on the atomic structures of the terminations and the corresponding electronic structures provides critical information towards an understanding of topological properties of BaMnSb2.

  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 18, 2023
  6. Maresca, Julia A. (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT We report the 3.5-Mb draft genome sequence of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain Nb3U1, which was isolated from a microbial mat sample collected from Nakabusa Hot Spring, Nagano, Japan.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 19, 2023
  7. Abstract

    While moderately elevated ambient temperatures do not trigger stress responses in plants, they do substantially stimulate the growth of specific organs through a process known as thermomorphogenesis. The basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) plays a central role in regulating thermomorphogenetic hypocotyl elongation in various plant species, including Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Although it is well known that PIF4 and its co-activator HEMERA (HMR) promote plant thermosensory growth by activating genes involved in the biosynthesis and signaling of the phytohormone auxin, the detailed molecular mechanism of such transcriptional activation is not clear. In this report, we investigated the role of the Mediator complex in the PIF4/HMR-mediated thermoresponsive gene expression. Through the characterization of various mutants of the Mediator complex, a tail subunit named MED14 was identified as an essential factor for thermomorphogenetic hypocotyl growth. MED14 was required for the thermal induction of PIF4 target genes but had a marginal effect on the levels of PIF4 and HMR. Further transcriptomic analyses confirmed that the expression of numerous PIF4/HMR-dependent, auxin-related genes required MED14 at warm temperatures. Moreover, PIF4 and HMR physically interacted with MED14 and both were indispensable for the association of MED14 with the promoters of these thermoresponsive genes.more »While PIF4 did not regulate MED14 levels, HMR was required for the transcript abundance of MED14. Taken together, these results unveil an important thermomorphogenetic mechanism, in which PIF4 and HMR recruit the Mediator complex to activate auxin-related growth-promoting genes when plants sense moderate increases in ambient temperature.

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  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 5, 2023
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 19, 2023
  10. Synopsis

    When new land is created, initial microbial colonization lays the foundation for further ecological succession of plant and animal communities. Primary microbial succession of new aquatic habitats formed during volcanic activity has received little attention. The anchialine ecosystem, which includes coastal ponds in young lava flows, offers an opportunity to examine this process. Here, we characterized microbial communities of anchialine habitats in Hawaii that were created during volcanic eruptions in 2018. Benthic samples from three habitats were collected ∼2 years after their formation and at later time points spanning ∼1 year. Sequence profiling (16S and 18S) of prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities was used to test whether communities were similar to those from older, established anchialine habitats, and if community structure changed over time. Results show that microbial communities from the new habitats were unlike any from established anchialine microbial communities, having higher proportions of Planctomycetota and Chloroflexi but lower proportions of green algae. Each new habitat also harbored its own unique community relative to other habitats. While community composition in each habitat underwent statistically significant changes over time, they remained distinctive from established anchialine habitats. New habitats also had highly elevated temperatures compared to other habitats. These results suggest that idiosyncraticmore »microbial consortia form during early succession of Hawaiian anchialine habitats. Future monitoring will reveal whether the early communities described here remain stable after temperatures decline and macro-organisms become more abundant, or if microbial communities will continue to change and eventually resemble those of established habitats. This work is a key first step in examining primary volcanic succession in aquatic habitats and suggests young anchialine habitats may warrant special conservation status.

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