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  1. Abstract Over the last 25 years, radiowave detection of neutrino-generated signals, using cold polar ice as the neutrino target, has emerged as perhaps the most promising technique for detection of extragalactic ultra-high energy neutrinos (corresponding to neutrino energies in excess of 0.01 Joules, or 10 17 electron volts). During the summer of 2021 and in tandem with the initial deployment of the Radio Neutrino Observatory in Greenland (RNO-G), we conducted radioglaciological measurements at Summit Station, Greenland to refine our understanding of the ice target. We report the result of one such measurement, the radio-frequency electric field attenuation length $L_\alpha$ .more »We find an approximately linear dependence of $L_\alpha$ on frequency with the best fit of the average field attenuation for the upper 1500 m of ice: $\langle L_\alpha \rangle = ( ( 1154 \pm 121) - ( 0.81 \pm 0.14) \, ( \nu /{\rm MHz}) ) \,{\rm m}$ for frequencies ν ∈ [145 − 350] MHz.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 30, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  3. Abstract Since summer 2021, the Radio Neutrino Observatory in Greenland (RNO-G) is searching for astrophysical neutrinos at energies $${>10}$$ > 10  PeV by detecting the radio emission from particle showers in the ice around Summit Station, Greenland. We present an extensive simulation study that shows how RNO-G will be able to measure the energy of such particle cascades, which will in turn be used to estimate the energy of the incoming neutrino that caused them. The location of the neutrino interaction is determined using the differences in arrival times between channels and the electric field of the radio signal ismore »reconstructed using a novel approach based on Information Field Theory. Based on these properties, the shower energy can be estimated. We show that this method can achieve an uncertainty of 13% on the logarithm of the shower energy after modest quality cuts and estimate how this can constrain the energy of the neutrino. The method presented in this paper is applicable to all similar radio neutrino detectors, such as the proposed radio array of IceCube-Gen2.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  4. Abstract The balloon-borne ANITA [1] experiment is designed to detect ultra-high energy neutrinos via radio emissions produced by in-ice showers. Although initially purposed for interactions within the Antarctic ice sheet, ANITA also demonstrated the ability to self-trigger on radio emissions from ultra-high energy charged cosmic rays [2] (CR) interacting in the Earth's atmosphere. For showers produced above the Antarctic ice sheet, reflection of the down-coming radio signals at the Antarctic surface should result in a polarity inversion prior to subsequent observation at the ∼35–40 km altitude ANITA gondola. Based on data taken during the ANITA-1 and ANITA-3 flights, ANITA published two anomalousmore »instances of upcoming cosmic-rays with measured polarity opposite the remaining sample of ∼50 UHECR signals [3, 4]. The steep observed upwards incidence angles (25–30 degrees relative to the horizontal) require non-Standard Model physics if these events are due to in-ice neutrino interactions, as the Standard Model cross-section would otherwise prohibit neutrinos from penetrating the long required chord of Earth. Shoemaker et al. [5] posit that glaciological effects may explain the steep observed anomalous events. We herein consider the scenarios offered by Shoemaker et al. and find them to be disfavored by extant ANITA and HiCal experimental data. We note that the recent report of four additional near-horizon anomalous ANITA-4 events [6], at >3σ significance, are incompatible with their model, which requires significant signal transmission into the ice.« less
  5. null (Ed.)
  6. Abstract The Surface Enhancement of the IceTop air-shower array will include the addition of radio antennas and scintillator panels, co-located with the existing ice-Cherenkov tanks and covering an area of about 1 km 2 . Together, these will increase the sensitivity of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory to the electromagnetic and muonic components of cosmic-ray-induced air showers at the South Pole. The inclusion of the radio technique necessitates an expanded set of simulation and analysis tools to explore the radio-frequency emission from air showers in the 70 MHz to 350 MHz band. In this paper we describe the software modules thatmore »have been developed to work with time- and frequency-domain information within IceCube's existing software framework, IceTray, which is used by the entire IceCube collaboration. The software includes a method by which air-shower simulation, generated using CoREAS, can be reused via waveform interpolation, thus overcoming a significant computational hurdle in the field.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  8. The Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) is an ultrahigh energy (UHE, >10^17  eV) neutrino detector designed to observe neutrinos by searching for the radio waves emitted by the relativistic products of neutrino-nucleon interactions in Antarctic ice. In this paper, we present constraints on the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy neutrinos between 1016 and 1021  eV resulting from a search for neutrinos in two complementary analyses, both analyzing four years of data (2013–2016) from the two deep stations (A2, A3) operating at that time. We place a 90% CL upper limit on the diffuse all flavor neutrino flux at 1018  eV of EF(E)=5.6×10^−16  cm^−2 s^−1 sr^−1. This analysismore »includes four times the exposure of the previous ARA result and represents approximately 1/5^th the exposure expected from operating ARA until the end of 2022.« less