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  1. Abstract

    Introduced and invasive species make excellent natural experiments for investigating rapid evolution. Here, we describe the effects of genetic drift and rapid genetic adaptation in pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) that were accidentally introduced to the Great Lakes via a single introduction event 31 generations ago. Using whole‐genome resequencing for 134 fish spanning five sample groups across the native and introduced range, we estimate that the source population's effective population size was 146,886 at the time of introduction, whereas the founding population's effective population size was just 72—a 2040‐fold decrease. As expected with a severe founder event, we show reductions in genome‐wide measures of genetic diversity, specifically a 37.7% reduction in the number of SNPs and an 8.2% reduction in observed heterozygosity. Despite this decline in genetic diversity, we provide evidence for putative selection at 47 loci across multiple chromosomes in the introduced populations, including missense variants in genes associated with circadian rhythm, immunological response and maturation, which match expected or known phenotypic changes in the Great Lakes. For one of these genes, we use a species‐specific agent‐based model to rule out genetic drift and conclude our results support a strong response to selection occurring in a period gene (per2) that plays a predominant role in determining an organism's daily clock, matching large day length differences experienced by introduced salmon during important phenological periods. Together, these results inform how populations might evolve rapidly to new environments, even with a small pool of standing genetic variation.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 5, 2024
  2. Abstract

    A whole‐genome duplication (WGD) doubles the entire genomic content of a species and is thought to have catalysed adaptive radiation in some polyploid‐origin lineages. However, little is known about general consequences of aWGDbecause gene duplicates (i.e., paralogs) are commonly filtered in genomic studies; such filtering may remove substantial portions of the genome in data sets from polyploid‐origin species. We demonstrate a new method that enables genome‐wide scans for signatures of selection at both nonduplicated and duplicated loci by taking locus‐specific copy number into account. We apply this method toRADsequence data from different ecotypes of a polyploid‐origin salmonid (Oncorhynchus nerka) and reveal signatures of divergent selection that would have been missed if duplicated loci were filtered. We also find conserved signatures of elevated divergence at pairs of homeologous chromosomes with residual tetrasomic inheritance, suggesting that joint evolution of some nondiverged gene duplicates may affect the adaptive potential of these genes. These findings illustrate that including duplicated loci in genomic analyses enables novel insights into the evolutionary consequences ofWGDs and local segmental gene duplications.

     
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