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  1. The sawtooth chain compound CsCo 2 (MoO 4 ) 2 (OH) is a complex magnetic system and here, we present a comprehensive series of magnetic and neutron scattering measurements to determine its magnetic phase diagram. The magnetic properties of CsCo 2 (MoO 4 ) 2 (OH) exhibit a strong coupling to the crystal lattice and its magnetic ground state can be easily manipulated by applied magnetic fields. There are two unique Co 2+ ions, base and vertex, with J bb and J bv magnetic exchange. The magnetism is highly anisotropic with the b -axis (chain) along the easy axis and the material orders antiferromagnetically at T N = 5 K. There are two successive metamagnetic transitions, the first at H c 1 = 0.2 kOe into a ferrimagnetic structure, and the other at H c 2 = 20 kOe to a ferromagnetic phase. Heat capacity measurements in various fields support the metamagnetic phase transformations, and the magnetic entropy value is intermediate between S = 3/2 and 1/2 states. The zero field antiferromagnetic phase contains vertex magnetic vectors (Co(1)) aligned parallel to the b -axis, while the base vectors (Co(2)) are canted by 34° and aligned in an opposite direction to the vertex vectors. The spins in parallel adjacent chains align in opposite directions, creating an overall antiferromagnetic structure. At a 3 kOe applied magnetic field, adjacent chains flip by 180° to generate a ferrimagnetic phase. An increase in field gradually induces the Co(1) moment to rotate along the b -axis and align in the same direction with Co(2) generating a ferromagnetic structure. The antiferromagnetic exchange parameters are calculated to be J bb = 0.028 meV and J bv = 0.13 meV, while the interchain exchange parameter is considerably weaker at J ch = (0.0047/ N ch ) meV. Our results demonstrate that the CsCo 2 (MoO 4 ) 2 (OH) is a promising candidate to study new physics associated with sawtooth chain magnetism and it encourages further theoretical studies as well as the synthesis of other sawtooth chain structures with different magnetic ions. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 13, 2024
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    Two new alkali vanadate carbonates with divalent transition metals have been synthesized as large single crystals via a high-temperature (600 °C) hydrothermal technique. Compound I , Rb 2 Mn 3 (VO 4 ) 2 CO 3 , crystallizes in the trigonal crystal system in the space group P 3̄1 c , and compound II , K 2 Co 3 (VO 4 ) 2 CO 3 , crystallizes in the hexagonal space group P 6 3 / m . Both structures contain honeycomb layers and triangular lattices made from edge-sharing MO 6 octahedra and MO 5 trigonal bipyramids, respectively. The honeycomb and triangular layers are connected along the c -axis through tetrahedral [VO 4 ] groups. The MO 5 units are connected with each other by carbonate groups in the ab -plane by forming a triangular magnetic lattice. The difference in space groups between I and II was also investigated with Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. Single crystal magnetic characterization of I indicates three magnetic transitions at 77 K, 2.3 K, and 1.5 K. The corresponding magnetic structures for each magnetic transition of I were determined using single crystal neutron diffraction. At 77 K the compound orders in the MnO 6 -honeycomb layer in a Néel-type antiferromagnetic orientation while the MnO 5 triangular lattice ordered below 2.3 K in a colinear ‘up–up–down’ fashion, followed by a planar ‘Y’ type magnetic structure. K 2 Co 3 (VO 4 ) 2 CO 3 ( II ) exhibits a canted antiferromagnetic ordering below T N = 8 K. The Curie–Weiss fit (200–350 K) gives a Curie–Weiss temperature of −42 K suggesting a dominant antiferromagnetic coupling in the Co 2+ magnetic sublattices. 
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