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  1. Friction surfacing is a solid-state metal deposition technique suitable for a wide range of metallic materials. This technique results in coatings on surfaces for joining purposes or surface modification applications such as wear and corrosion performance improvements. In this study, a novel approach in friction surfacing is utilized in which the consumable tool deposits material from its side instead of the end of the tool, which has been employed in conventional friction surfacing. Frictional heat enables plastic deformation, which results in the depositing of the consumable material on the substrate surface. The process is carried out at temperatures below the melting point of the consumable material, resulting in a solid-state deposition process. In the current study, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy have been employed for the characterization of the interfaces and coatings. The results of this study exhibited that there is no elemental diffusion between the tool and substrate materials at the interface, showing that the process temperature was low enough to prevent plasticizing of the substrate surface.
  2. Friction surfacing technique is a thermo-mechanical approach for metallic deposition, suitable for a broad range of materials and applications. Friction surfacing can be employed for various industrial purposes such as coating, welding, repairing defective parts, surface hardening, and improving corrosion performance. In this technique, frictional heat generated at the interface of the consumable tool and substrate results in a severe plastic deformation at the end of the rod, enabling the deposition of a consumable material on the substrate surface. In this investigation, a novel method in friction surfacing, lateral friction surfacing, is employed to deposit the aluminum coatings. In this novel approach, the side of the consumable tool is pressed against the surface of the substrate, and the material transfer happens from the lateral surface of the tool. This technique provides extremely thin and smooth deposits, which are more consistent compared to the conventional approach of friction surfacing. Moreover, this technique enables fabricating of deposits in lower temperatures, lessening the thermal impacts on the microstructures and mechanical properties of the deposits. In this investigation plates of 1018 mild steel were partially coated with various aluminum alloys and corroded in an accelerated corrosion test chamber. The corrosion performance of the partiallymore »coated sample was evaluated by mass loss measurement. It was found that AA5086 offered the most corrosion protection. After 13 cycles of GM9540P test, equivalent to approximately 3½ years exposure at a mild/moderate marine site in Hawaii, almost all of the deposited aluminum was consumed.« less
  3. Friction surfacing is an advanced technique to create solid-state deposition of wide range of materials onto a similar or dissimilar material substrate. This paper describes the study of a novel method to deposit material onto a substrate by friction surfacing. In the friction surfacing technique, the heat is generated entirely by friction. This metallic deposition technique consists of a rotating consumable tool that rubs against the surface of the substrate, and due to the frictional heat and forging generated between the tool and substrate, material is deposited onto the substrate. The material transferred from the consumable tool to the substrate occurs from the side of the tool, while in the conventional friction surfacing method, the material transfer happens from the end of the tool. In this investigation, the single and double-pass deposition of A6063 aluminum alloy onto an A36 carbon steel substrate was successfully carried out. To study the influence of the process parameters on the friction depositions, the substrate was divided into three sections, while the applying forces were varied in each section. Process parameters such as tool rotational speeds, table traverse speeds and normal force were experimented. A customized JET JMD-18 milling machine was used to carry outmore »the experiments. The influence of process parameters on the material deposition was characterized by means of roughness tester and optical microscope. The results of the study reveal that this novel method is capable to create an ultra-thin and smooth metallic deposition with excellent coverage. The material consumption during the single and double-pass deposition was evaluated, and the coating cross-section was assessed using the optical microscope.« less
  4. The friction surfacing technique is a new variation of friction stir welding process for modification of the surface properties of the substrate. There is a g rowing body o f literature dealing with friction surfacing by consumable tool. This is a metallic deposition technique in which a rotating consumable tool deposits material onto a solid substrate . Friction surfacing has many applications in welding , c o ati ng, repair of def e c tive components , hard surfacing and corrosion protection. This process does not generate high temperatures; therefore this technique i s a suitable coating method capable of joining low melting point alloys. This review paper studi es t he basic principles a n d the use of friction surfacing as well as a survey of the latest research es and applications with emphasis on superficial and microstru ctural characterization tensile, bending, effects of the different process factor s such as ax ia l for ce, rotation a n d travel speed , material deposition rate, energy consumption and different to ol types. This review shows t here are a few investigations dealing with novel tool/workpiece configu rations for adding material for purposes other than coati ng sucmore »h as keyhole fi l ling or dissimilar material joining. Also, t he possible future direct ions for development and application of this technique are presented.« less