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  1. The acquisition of instrumental responding can be supported by primary reinforcers or by conditional (also known as secondary) reinforcers that themselves have an association to a primary reinforcer. While primary reinforcement has been heavily studied for the past century, the associative basis of conditioned reinforcement has received comparatively little experimental examination. Yet conditioned reinforcement has been employed as an important behavioral assay in neuroscience studies, and thus an analysis of its associative basis is called for. We evaluated the extent to which an element from a previously trained compound would facilitate conditioned reinforcement. Three groups of rats received Pavlovian conditioningmore »with a visual-auditory compound cue followed by food. After training, a lever was made available that, when pressed, produced the same trained compound (group compound), only the auditory cue (group element), or a novel auditory cue (group control). The rats in group compound pressed the lever at a higher rate than did rats in either group element or group control, demonstrating a strong conditioned reinforcement effect only in group compound. Interestingly, there was almost no difference in responding between group element and group control. The implications of this generalization decrement in conditioned reinforcement are discussed—particularly as they relate to research in behavioral neuroscience.« less
  2. A bstract A comprehensive set of azimuthal single-spin and double-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive leptoproduction of pions, charged kaons, protons, and antiprotons from transversely polarized protons is presented. These asymmetries include the previously published HERMES results on Collins and Sivers asymmetries, the analysis of which has been extended to include protons and antiprotons and also to an extraction in a three-dimensional kinematic binning and enlarged phase space. They are complemented by corresponding results for the remaining four single-spin and four double-spin asymmetries allowed in the one-photon-exchange approximation of the semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering process for target-polarization orientation perpendicular to the direction ofmore »the incoming lepton beam. Among those results, significant non-vanishing cos ( ϕ−ϕ S ) modulations provide evidence for a sizable worm-gear (II) distribution, $$ {g}_{1\mathrm{T}}^q\left(x,{\mathrm{p}}_T^2\right) $$ g 1 T q x p T 2 . Most of the other modulations are found to be consistent with zero with the notable exception of large sin ( ϕ S ) modulations for charged pions and K + .« less