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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  2. Abstract

    Particles beyond the Standard Model (SM) can generically have lifetimes that are long compared to SM particles at the weak scale. When produced at experiments such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, these long-lived particles (LLPs) can decay far from the interaction vertex of the primary proton–proton collision. Such LLP signatures are distinct from those of promptly decaying particles that are targeted by the majority of searches for new physics at the LHC, often requiring customized techniques to identify, for example, significantly displaced decay vertices, tracks with atypical properties, and short track segments. Given their non-standard nature,more »a comprehensive overview of LLP signatures at the LHC is beneficial to ensure that possible avenues of the discovery of new physics are not overlooked. Here we report on the joint work of a community of theorists and experimentalists with the ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb experiments—as well as those working on dedicated experiments such as MoEDAL, milliQan, MATHUSLA, CODEX-b, and FASER—to survey the current state of LLP searches at the LHC, and to chart a path for the development of LLP searches into the future, both in the upcoming Run 3 and at the high-luminosity LHC. The work is organized around the current and future potential capabilities of LHC experiments to generally discover new LLPs, and takes a signature-based approach to surveying classes of models that give rise to LLPs rather than emphasizing any particular theory motivation. We develop a set of simplified models; assess the coverage of current searches; document known, often unexpected backgrounds; explore the capabilities of proposed detector upgrades; provide recommendations for the presentation of search results; and look towards the newest frontiers, namely high-multiplicity ‘dark showers’, highlighting opportunities for expanding the LHC reach for these signals.

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  3. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Production cross sections of the Higgs boson are measured in the $${\mathrm{H}} \rightarrow {\mathrm{Z}} {\mathrm{Z}} \rightarrow 4\ell $$ H → Z Z → 4 ℓ ( $$\ell ={\mathrm{e}},{{{\upmu }}_{\mathrm{}}^{\mathrm{}}} $$ ℓ = e , μ ) decay channel. A data sample of proton–proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 $$\,\text {Te}\text {V}$$ Te , collected by the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 137 $$\,\text {fb}^{-1}$$ fb - 1 is used. The signal strength modifier $$\mu $$ μ , defined as the ratio of the Higgs boson production rate in the $$4\ellmore »$$ 4 ℓ channel to the standard model (SM) expectation, is measured to be $$\mu =0.94 \pm 0.07 \,\text {(stat)} ^{+0.09}_{-0.08} \,\text {(syst)} $$ μ = 0.94 ± 0.07 (stat) - 0.08 + 0.09 (syst) at a fixed value of $$m_{{\mathrm{H}}} = 125.38\,\text {Ge}\text {V} $$ m H = 125.38 Ge . The signal strength modifiers for the individual Higgs boson production modes are also reported. The inclusive fiducial cross section for the $${\mathrm{H}} \rightarrow 4\ell $$ H → 4 ℓ process is measured to be $$2.84^{+0.23}_{-0.22} \,\text {(stat)} ^{+0.26}_{-0.21} \,\text {(syst)} \,\text {fb} $$ 2 . 84 - 0.22 + 0.23 (stat) - 0.21 + 0.26 (syst) fb , which is compatible with the SM prediction of $$2.84 \pm 0.15 \,\text {fb} $$ 2.84 ± 0.15 fb for the same fiducial region. Differential cross sections as a function of the transverse momentum and rapidity of the Higgs boson, the number of associated jets, and the transverse momentum of the leading associated jet are measured. A new set of cross section measurements in mutually exclusive categories targeted to identify production mechanisms and kinematical features of the events is presented. The results are in agreement with the SM predictions.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2022
  4. Abstract The rate for Higgs ( $${\mathrm{H}} $$ H ) bosons production in association with either one ( $${\mathrm{t}} {\mathrm{H}} $$ t H ) or two ( $${\mathrm{t}} {{\overline{{{\mathrm{t}}}}}} {\mathrm{H}} $$ t t ¯ H ) top quarks is measured in final states containing multiple electrons, muons, or tau leptons decaying to hadrons and a neutrino, using proton–proton collisions recorded at a center-of-mass energy of $$13\,\text {TeV} $$ 13 TeV by the CMS experiment. The analyzed data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 137 $$\,\text {fb}^{-1}$$ fb - 1 . The analysis is aimed at events that contain $${\mathrm{H}} \rightarrowmore »{\mathrm{W}} {\mathrm{W}} $$ H → W W , $${\mathrm{H}} \rightarrow {\uptau } {\uptau } $$ H → τ τ , or $${\mathrm{H}} \rightarrow {\mathrm{Z}} {\mathrm{Z}} $$ H → Z Z decays and each of the top quark(s) decays either to lepton+jets or all-jet channels. Sensitivity to signal is maximized by including ten signatures in the analysis, depending on the lepton multiplicity. The separation among $${\mathrm{t}} {\mathrm{H}} $$ t H , $${\mathrm{t}} {{\overline{{{\mathrm{t}}}}}} {\mathrm{H}} $$ t t ¯ H , and the backgrounds is enhanced through machine-learning techniques and matrix-element methods. The measured production rates for the $${\mathrm{t}} {{\overline{{{\mathrm{t}}}}}} {\mathrm{H}} $$ t t ¯ H and $${\mathrm{t}} {\mathrm{H}} $$ t H signals correspond to $$0.92 \pm 0.19\,\text {(stat)} ^{+0.17}_{-0.13}\,\text {(syst)} $$ 0.92 ± 0.19 (stat) - 0.13 + 0.17 (syst) and $$5.7 \pm 2.7\,\text {(stat)} \pm 3.0\,\text {(syst)} $$ 5.7 ± 2.7 (stat) ± 3.0 (syst) of their respective standard model (SM) expectations. The corresponding observed (expected) significance amounts to 4.7 (5.2) standard deviations for $${\mathrm{t}} {{\overline{{{\mathrm{t}}}}}} {\mathrm{H}} $$ t t ¯ H , and to 1.4 (0.3) for $${\mathrm{t}} {\mathrm{H}} $$ t H production. Assuming that the Higgs boson coupling to the tau lepton is equal in strength to its expectation in the SM, the coupling $$y_{{\mathrm{t}}}$$ y t of the Higgs boson to the top quark divided by its SM expectation, $$\kappa _{{\mathrm{t}}}=y_{{\mathrm{t}}}/y_{{\mathrm{t}}}^{\mathrm {SM}}$$ κ t = y t / y t SM , is constrained to be within $$-0.9< \kappa _{{\mathrm{t}}}< -0.7$$ - 0.9 < κ t < - 0.7 or $$0.7< \kappa _{{\mathrm{t}}}< 1.1$$ 0.7 < κ t < 1.1 , at 95% confidence level. This result is the most sensitive measurement of the $${\mathrm{t}} {{\overline{{{\mathrm{t}}}}}} {\mathrm{H}} $$ t t ¯ H production rate to date.« less
  5. Abstract The production of Z boson pairs in proton–proton ( $${\mathrm{p}} {\mathrm{p}} $$ p p ) collisions, $${{\mathrm{p}} {\mathrm{p}} \rightarrow ({\mathrm{Z}}/\gamma ^*)({\mathrm{Z}}/\gamma ^*) \rightarrow 2\ell 2\ell '}$$ p p → ( Z / γ ∗ ) ( Z / γ ∗ ) → 2 ℓ 2 ℓ ′ , where $${\ell ,\ell ' = {\mathrm{e}}}$$ ℓ , ℓ ′ = e or $${{\upmu }}$$ μ , is studied at a center-of-mass energy of 13 $$\,\text {TeV}$$ TeV with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 137 $$\,\text {fb}^{-1}$$ fb - 1more », collected during 2016–2018. The $${\mathrm{Z}} {\mathrm{Z}} $$ Z Z production cross section, $$\sigma _{\text {tot}} ({\mathrm{p}} {\mathrm{p}} \rightarrow {\mathrm{Z}} {\mathrm{Z}} ) = 17.4 \pm 0.3 \,\text {(stat)} \pm 0.5 \,\text {(syst)} \pm 0.4 \,\text {(theo)} \pm 0.3 \,\text {(lumi)} \text { pb} $$ σ tot ( p p → Z Z ) = 17.4 ± 0.3 (stat) ± 0.5 (syst) ± 0.4 (theo) ± 0.3 (lumi) pb , measured for events with two pairs of opposite-sign, same-flavor leptons produced in the mass region $${60< m_{\ell ^+\ell ^-} < 120\,\text {GeV}}$$ 60 < m ℓ + ℓ - < 120 GeV is consistent with standard model predictions. Differential cross sections are also measured and agree with theoretical predictions. The invariant mass distribution of the four-lepton system is used to set limits on anomalous $${\mathrm{Z}} {\mathrm{Z}} {\mathrm{Z}} $$ Z Z Z and $${{\mathrm{Z}} {\mathrm{Z}} \gamma }$$ Z Z γ couplings.« less
  6. Abstract A search for dark matter particles is performed using events with a Z boson candidate and large missing transverse momentum. The analysis is based on proton–proton collision data at a center-of-mass energy of 13 $$\,\text {Te}\text {V}$$ Te , collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2016–2018, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 137 $$\,\text {fb}^{-1}$$ fb - 1 . The search uses the decay channels $${\mathrm{Z}} \rightarrow {\mathrm{e}} {\mathrm{e}} $$ Z → e e and $${\mathrm{Z}} \rightarrow {{\upmu }{}{}} {{\upmu }{}{}} $$ Z → μ μ . No significant excess of events is observed over themore »background expected from the standard model. Limits are set on dark matter particle production in the context of simplified models with vector, axial-vector, scalar, and pseudoscalar mediators, as well as on a two-Higgs-doublet model with an additional pseudoscalar mediator. In addition, limits are provided for spin-dependent and spin-independent scattering cross sections and are compared to those from direct-detection experiments. The results are also interpreted in the context of models of invisible Higgs boson decays, unparticles, and large extra dimensions.« less