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  1. A major limitation of transient optical spectroscopy is that relatively high laser fluences are required to enable broadband, multichannel detection with acceptable signal-to-noise levels. Under typical experimental conditions, many condensed phase and nanoscale materials exhibit fluence-dependent dynamics, including higher order effects such as carrier–carrier annihilation. With the proliferation of commercial laser systems, offering both high repetition rates and high pulse energies, have come new opportunities for high sensitivity pump-probe measurements at low pump fluences. However, experimental considerations needed to fully leverage the statistical advantage of these laser systems have not been fully described. Here, we demonstrate a high repetition rate, broadband transient spectrometer capable of multichannel shot-to-shot detection at 90 kHz. Importantly, we find that several high-speed cameras exhibit a time-domain fixed pattern noise resulting from interleaved analog-to-digital converters, which is particularly detrimental to the conventional “ON/OFF” modulation scheme used in pump-probe spectroscopy. Using a modified modulation and data processing scheme, we achieve a noise level of 10−5 in 4 s for differential transmission, an order of magnitude lower than for commercial 1 kHz transient spectrometers for the same acquisition time. We leverage the high sensitivity of this system to measure the differential transmission of monolayer graphene at low pump fluence. We showmore »that signals on the order of 10−6 OD can be measured, enabling a new data acquisition regime for low-dimensional materials.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  2. A library of thio- and selenourea derivatives is used to adjust the kinetics of PbE (E = S, Se) nanocrystal formation across a 1000-fold range ( k r = 10 −1 to 10 −4 s −1 ), at several temperatures (80–120 °C), under a standard set of conditions (Pb : E = 1.2 : 1, [Pb(oleate) 2 ] = 10.8 mM, [chalcogenourea] = 9.0 mM). An induction delay ( t ind ) is observed prior to the onset of nanocrystal absorption during which PbE solute is observed using in situ X-ray total scattering. Density functional theory models fit to the X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) support a Pb 2 (μ 2 -S) 2 (Pb(O 2 CR) 2 ) 2 structure. Absorption spectra of aliquots reveal a continuous increase in the number of nanocrystals over more than half of the total reaction time at low temperatures. A strong correlation between the width of the nucleation phase and reaction temperature is observed that does not correlate with the polydispersity. These findings are antithetical to the critical concentration dependence of nucleation that underpins the La Mer hypothesis and demonstrates that the duration of the nucleation period has a minor influence on the size distribution. The results canmore »be explained by growth kinetics that are size dependent, more rapid at high temperature, and self limiting at low temperatures.« less
  3. Abstract

    Controlling how electromagnetic waves interact with complex media is critical for applications in imaging and focusing. Such lightwave interactions with complex media can lead to dramatic optical effects like lasing. While much work in random lasing focus on understanding how gain and scattering co‐operatively generate lasing, little work has focused on how to manipulate the lasing threshold without modifying the structural disorder. Here, a simple, mostly unexplored, strategy is demonstrated that employs atomic layer deposition (ALD) to tune the local near‐field environment while preserving the underpinning disorder—controlling lasing in a nanoscale complex medium on a large scale (>cm2). The nanoscale complex medium is a quasi‐2D system of coupled zinc oxide nanospheres with overall thickness deep in the sub‐wavelength regime (≈λ/4). Near‐ultraviolet femtosecond spectroscopy probes the broadband response of the gain nanomaterial, details how ALD process fundamentally modifies the fast‐picosecond and slow‐nanosecond carrier dynamics, and informs on the relevant timescales critical for lasing. Full‐field electromagnetic simulations provide critical insights about how near‐field dielectric environment modifies the nanostructure's scattering cross‐section, which ultimately results in enhanced lasing. These results highlight a simple path to control how electromagnetic waves interact in a complex medium, a key step toward large‐scale implementation of complex lasers.

  4. Abstract

    Metal halide perovskites have witnessed great success in green, red, and near‐infrared light‐emitting diodes (LEDs), yet blue LEDs still lag behind. Reducing undesired energetic disorders – broadn‐phases and halide segregation – is considered as the most critical strategy to further improve the performances. Here, the study reports a newly designed and synthesized di‐ammonium ligand with rigidπ‐conjugated rings and additional methyl groups to construct Dion–Jacobson (DJ) structure. Augmented coordination from the extra ammonium site and increased effective bulkiness from methyl groups lead to better distribution control over conventional mono‐ammonium ligands. This enhances the radiative recombination of blue emissions in the film with homogeneous energy landscape and improved surface morphology, as evidenced by a series of imaging and mapping techniques. As a result, it demonstrates DJ perovskite LEDs (PeLEDs) with peak external quantum efficiencies of ≈4% at 484 nm and ≈11% at 494 nm, which are among the top reported for pure DJ phase‐based PeLEDs in the corresponding wavelength regions. The results deepen the understanding of regulating energetic disorders in perovskite materials via molecular engineering.

  5. null (Ed.)