We present a proof of concept for a spectrally selective thermal midIR source based on nanopatterned graphene (NPG) with a typical mobility of CVDgrown graphene (up to 3000
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Abstract ), ensuring scalability to large areas. For that, we solve the electrostatic problem of a conducting hyperboloid with an elliptical wormhole in the presence of an$$\hbox {cm}^2\,\hbox {V}^{1}\,\hbox {s}^{1}$$ ${\text{cm}}^{2}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}{\text{V}}^{1}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}{\text{s}}^{1}$inplane electric field. The localized surface plasmons (LSPs) on the NPG sheet, partially hybridized with graphene phonons and surface phonons of the neighboring materials, allow for the control and tuning of the thermal emission spectrum in the wavelength regime from to 12$$\lambda =3$$ $\lambda =3$ m by adjusting the size of and distance between the circular holes in a hexagonal or square lattice structure. Most importantly, the LSPs along with an optical cavity increase the emittance of graphene from about 2.3% for pristine graphene to 80% for NPG, thereby outperforming stateoftheart pristine graphene light sources operating in the nearinfrared by at least a factor of 100. According to our COMSOL calculations, a maximum emission power per area of$$\upmu$$ $\mu $ W/$$11\times 10^3$$ $11\times {10}^{3}$ at$$\hbox {m}^2$$ ${\text{m}}^{2}$ K for a bias voltage of$$T=2000$$ $T=2000$ V is achieved by controlling the temperature of the hot electrons through the Joule heating. By generalizing Planck’s theory to any grey body and deriving the completely general nonlocal fluctuationdissipation theorem with nonlocal response of surface plasmons in the random phase approximation, we show that the coherence length of the graphene plasmons and the thermally emitted photons can be as large as 13$$V=23$$ $V=23$ m and 150$$\upmu$$ $\mu $ m, respectively, providing the opportunity to create phased arrays made of nanoantennas represented by the holes in NPG. The spatial phase variation of the coherence allows for beamsteering of the thermal emission in the range between$$\upmu$$ $\mu $ and$$12^\circ$$ ${12}^{\circ}$ by tuning the Fermi energy between$$80^\circ$$ ${80}^{\circ}$ eV and$$E_F=1.0$$ ${E}_{F}=1.0$ eV through the gate voltage. Our analysis of the nonlocal hydrodynamic response leads to the conjecture that the diffusion length and viscosity in graphene are frequencydependent. Using finitedifference time domain calculations, coupled mode theory, and RPA, we develop the model of a midIR light source based on NPG, which will pave the way to graphenebased optical midIR communication, midIR color displays, midIR spectroscopy, and virus detection.$$E_F=0.25$$ ${E}_{F}=0.25$