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  6. The aim of this study is to experimentally investigate the fatigue behavior of additively manufactured (AM) NiTi (i.e. Nitinol) specimens and compare the results to the wrought material. Additive manufacturing is a technique in which components are fabricated in a layer-by-layer additive process using a sliced CAD model based on the desired geometry. NiTi rods were fabricated in this study using Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS), a Direct Laser Deposition (DLD) AM technique. Due to the high plateau stress of the as-fabricated NiTi, all the AM specimens were heat-treated to reduce their plateau stress, close to the one for the wrought material. Two different heat treatment processes, resulting in different stress plateaus, were employed to be able to compare the results in stress- and strain-based fatigue analysis. Straincontrolled constant amplitude pulsating fatigue experiments were conducted on heat-treated AM NiTi specimens at room temperature (~24°C) to investigate their cyclic deformation and fatigue behavior. Fatigue lives of AM NiTi specimens were observed to be shorter than wrought material specifically in the high cycle fatigue regime. Fractography of the fracture surface of fatigue specimens using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed the presence of microstructural defects such as voids, resulting from entrapped gas or lack of fusion and serving as crack initiation sites, to be the main reason for the shorter fatigue lives of AM NiTi specimens. However, the maximum stress level found to be the most influential factor in the fatigue behavior of superelastic NiTi. 
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  7. Parts fabricated via additive manufacturing (AM) methods are prone to experiencing high temperature gradients during manufacture resulting in internal residual stress formation. In the current study, a numerical model for predicting the temperature distribution and residual stress in Directed Energy Deposited (DED) Ti–6Al–4V parts is utilized for determining a relationship between local part temperature gradients with generated residual stress. Effects of time interval between successive layer deposits, as well as layer deposition itself, on the temperature gradient vector for the first and each layer is investigated. The numerical model is validated using thermographic measurements of Ti-6Al-4V specimens fabricated via Laser Engineered Net Shaping® (LENS), a blown-powder/laser-based DED method. Results demonstrate the heterogeneity in the part’s spatiotemporal temperature field, and support the fact that as the part number, or single part size or geometry, vary, the resultant residual stress due to temperature gradients will be impacted. As the time inter-layer time interval increases from 0 to 10 second, the temperature gradient magnitude in vicinity of the melt pool will increase slightly. 
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