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Creators/Authors contains: "Shao, M."

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    The physics of baryons in haloes, and their subsequent influence on the total matter phase space, has a rich phenomenology and must be well understood in order to pursue a vast set of questions in both cosmology and astrophysics. We use the Cosmology and Astrophysics with MachinE Learning Simulation (Camels) suite to quantify the impact of four different galaxy formation parameters/processes (as well as two cosmological parameters) on the concentration–mass relation, cvir−Mvir. We construct a simulation-informed non-linear model for concentration as a function of halo mass, redshift, and six cosmological/astrophysical parameters. This is done for two galaxy formation models, IllustrisTNG and Simba, using 1000 simulations of each. We extract the imprints of galaxy formation across a wide range in mass $M_{\rm vir}\in [10^{11}, 10^{14.5}] \, {\rm M}_\odot \, h^{-1}$ and in redshift z ∈ [0, 6] finding many strong mass- and redshift-dependent features. Comparisons between the IllustrisTNG and Simba results show the astrophysical model choices cause significant differences in the mass and redshift dependence of these baryon imprints. Finally, we use existing observational measurements of cvir−Mvir to provide rough limits on the four astrophysical parameters. Our non-linear model is made publicly available and can be used to include Camels-basedmore »baryon imprints in any halo model-based analysis.

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  3. The root system is critical for the survival of nearly all land plants and a key target for improving abiotic stress tolerance, nutrient accumulation, and yield in crop species. Although many methods of root phenotyping exist, within field studies, one of the most popular methods is the extraction and measurement of the upper portion of the root system, known as the root crown, followed by trait quantification based on manual measurements or 2D imaging. However, 2D techniques are inherently limited by the information available from single points of view. Here, we used X-ray computed tomography to generate highly accurate 3D models of maize root crowns and created computational pipelines capable of measuring 71 features from each sample. This approach improves estimates of the genetic contribution to root system architecture and is refined enough to detect various changes in global root system architecture over developmental time as well as more subtle changes in root distributions as a result of environmental differences. We demonstrate that root pulling force, a high-throughput method of root extraction that provides an estimate of root mass, is associated with multiple 3D traits from our pipeline. Our combined methodology can therefore be used to calibrate and interpret rootmore »pulling force measurements across a range of experimental contexts or scaled up as a stand-alone approach in large genetic studies of root system architecture.« less
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