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  1. Abstract

    We use the conjugate angle of radial action (θR), the best representation of the orbital phase, to explore the “midplane,” “north branch,” “south branch,” and “Monoceros area” disk structures that were previously revealed in the LAMOST K giants. The former three substructures, identified by their 3D kinematical distributions, have been shown to be projections of the phase space spiral (resulting from nonequilibrium phase mixing). In this work, we find that all of these substructures associated with the phase spiral show high aggregation in conjugate angle phase space, indicating that the clumping in conjugate angle space is a feature of ongoing, incomplete phase mixing. We do not find theZVZphase spiral located in the “Monoceros area,” but we do find a very highly concentrated substructure in the quadrant of conjugate angle space with the orbital phase from the apocenter to the guiding radius. The existence of the clump in conjugate angle space provides a complementary way to connect the “Monoceros area” with the direct response to a perturbation from a significant gravitationally interactive event. Using test particle simulations, we show that these features are analogous to disturbances caused by the impact of the last passage of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
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  6. Abstract

    In this study, we explore the use of unsteady transit time distribution (TTD) theory to model solute transport in biofilters, a popular form of nature‐based or “green” storm water infrastructure (GSI). TTD theory has the potential to address many unresolved challenges associated with predicting pollutant fate and transport through these systems, including unsteadiness in the water balance (time‐varying inflows, outflows, and storage), unsteadiness in pollutant loading, time‐dependent reactions, and scale‐up to GSI networks and urban catchments. From a solution to the unsteady age conservation equation under uniform sampling, we derive an explicit expression for solute breakthrough during and after one or more storm events. The solution is calibrated and validated with breakthrough data from 17 simulated storms at a field‐scale biofilter test facility in Southern California, using bromide as a conservative tracer. TTD theory closely reproduces bromide breakthrough concentrations, provided that lateral exchange with the surrounding soil is accounted for. At any given time, according to theory, more than half of the water in storage is from the most recent storm, while the rest is a mixture of penultimate and earlier storms. Thus, key management endpoints, such as the pollutant treatment credit attributable to GSI, are likely to depend on the evolving age distribution of water stored and released by these systems.

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