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Creators/Authors contains: "Shao, Y."

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  1. The research on coastal hazards predicts substantial adverse impacts of chronic and episodic flooding on populated coastal areas. Despite the growing evidence about anticipated flood risks, many coastal communities are still not adapting. The observed disconnect between science on physical impacts and adaptation decisionmaking in part reflects stakeholders’ inability to envision the implications of these impacts on socioeconomic systems and the built environment in their jurisdictions. This inertia is particularly apparent in the discourse on flood-driven displacement and relocation. There is a lack of knowledge about direct and indirect flood impacts on community attributes and services that contribute to relocation decision-making. This study holistically evaluates the flood exposure on municipal features vital for socioeconomic stability, livelihoods, and quality of life across spatiotemporal scales. As such, it uses a more nuanced approach to relocation risk assessment than those solely focused on direct inundation impacts. It measures flood exposure of land use, land cover, and sociocultural and economic dimensions that are important drivers of relocation in selected rural and urban areas. The approach uses a 50-year floodplain to delineate populated coastal locations exposed to 2% Annual Exceedance Probability (AEP) storm surge projections adjusted for 2030, 2060, and 2090 sea level rise (SLR) scenarios. It then evaluates the potential impacts of this flood exposure on different types of land uses and critical socioeconomic assets in rural (Dorchester and Talbot Counties, Maryland, USA) and urban (Cities of Hampton, Norfolk, Portsmouth, and Virginia Beach, Virginia, USA) settings. The results show that some urban land uses, such as open space, military and mixed-use, and rural residential and commercial areas, might experience significantly more flooding. There are also notable differences in the baseline flood exposure and the anticipated rate and acceleration in the future among selected communities with significant implications for relocation planning. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  2. Abstract The fabrication of ceramic scintillators by laser sintering is briefly reviewed and current limitations discussed. The experimental work focused on the fabrication and characterization of undoped and Pr-doped Lu 3 Al 5 O 12 (LuAG). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure of the sintered ceramics, with XRD results suggesting the absence of residual thermal stresses. Collectively, Raman results suggested the incorporation of Pr to affect the structure and its dynamics. Broadening the peaks of the ceramics in relation to those from the single crystal revealed the presence of structural disorder. Scanning electron microscopy revealed intergrain porosity thus explaining the lack of optical transparency. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements showed Pr to be homogeneously distributed. Radioluminescence measurements under X-ray excitation as a function of the temperature were used to investigate intrinsic defects of the host, including anti-sites and F-type defects. 
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  3. null (Ed.)
  4. Despite its importance in central nervous system development, development of the human neural tube (NT) remains poorly understood, given the challenges of studying human embryos, and the developmental divergence between humans and animal models. We report a human NT development model, in which NT-like tissues, neuroepithelial (NE) cysts, are generated in a bioengineered neurogenic environment through self-organization of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). NE cysts correspond to the neural plate in the dorsal ectoderm and have a default dorsal identity. Dorsal-ventral (DV) patterning of NE cysts is achieved using retinoic acid and/or sonic hedgehog and features sequential emergence of the ventral floor plate, P3, and pMN domains in discrete, adjacent regions and a dorsal territory progressively restricted to the opposite dorsal pole. This hPSC-based, DV patterned NE cyst system will be useful for understanding the self-organizing principles that guide NT patterning and for investigations of neural development and neural disease. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
  6. Collective electronic modes or lattice vibrations usually prohibit propagation of electromagnetic radiation through the bulk of common materials over a frequency range associated with these oscillations. However, this textbook tenet does not necessarily apply to layered crystals. Highly anisotropic materials often display nonintuitive optical properties and can permit propagation of subdiffractional waveguide modes, with hyperbolic dispersion, throughout their bulk. Here, we report on the observation of optically induced electronic hyperbolicity in the layered transition metal dichalcogenide tungsten diselenide (WSe2). We used photoexcitation to inject electron-hole pairs in WSe2and then visualized, by transient nanoimaging, the hyperbolic rays that traveled along conical trajectories inside of the crystal. We establish here the signatures of programmable hyperbolic electrodynamics and assess the role of quantum transitions of excitons within the Rydberg series in the observed polaritonic response.

     
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