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  1. High-voltage lithium-metal batteries (LMBs) with LiCoO 2 (LCO) as the cathode have high volumetric and gravimetric energy densities. However, it remains a challenge for stable cycling of LCO >4.5 V Li . Here we demonstrate that a rationally designed sulfonamide-based electrolyte can greatly improve the cycling stability at high voltages up to 4.7 V Li by stabilizing the electrode–electrolyte interfaces (EEIs) on both the Li-metal anode (LMA) and high-voltage LCO cathode. With the sulfonamide-based electrolyte, commercial LCO cathodes retain 89% and 85% of their capacities after 200 and 100 cycles under high charging voltages of 4.55 V Li and 4.6 V Li , respectively, significantly outperforming traditional carbonate-based electrolytes. The surface degradation, impedance growth, and detrimental side reactions in terms of gas evolution and Co dissolution are well suppressed. Our work demonstrates a promising strategy for designing new electrolytes to realize high-energy Li||LCO batteries. 
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  2. The salicylate method is one of the ammonia quantification methods that has been extensively used in literature for quantifying ammonia in the emerging field of nitrogen (electro)fixation. The presence of iron in the sample causes a strong negative interference on the salicylate method. Today, the recommended method to deal with such interferences is the experimental correction method: the iron concentration in the sample is measured using an iron quantification method, and then the corresponding amount of iron is added to the calibration samples. The limitation of this method is that when a batch of samples presents a great iron concentration variability, a different calibration curve has to be obtained for each sample. In this work, the interference of iron III on the salicylate method was experimentally quantified, and a model was proposed to capture the effect of iron III interference on the ammonia quantification result. This model can be used to correct the iron III interferences on ammonia quantification. The great advantage of this correction method is that it only requires three experimental curves in order to correct the iron III interference in any sample provided the iron III concentration is below the total peak suppression concentration.

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  3. Abstract

    Modulation doping is one of the strategies to improve thermoelectric power factors of nanocomposites and thin‐film bilayered heterostructures by effectively increasing electrical conductivity. Here, it is reported that thin‐film heterostructures of heavily doped p‐type organic conducting polymer, poly(3,4‐ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and undoped thin‐film Ge can enhance thermoelectric power factor by modulation doping. The maximum power factor and Seebeck coefficient of the bilayered heterostructures are 154 µW m−1K−2and 398 µV K−1, respectively, corresponding to 47‐fold and 41‐fold increases compared to those of bulk PEDOT:PSS and 64‐fold increase compared to power factor of undoped Ge. The enhancements in power factor and Seebeck coefficient are quantitatively described by the hole transfer from PEDOT:PSS to Ge, which takes into account the band alignment at the interface detected by Kraut's method. Agreement between the simulation and experiment results also implies predictability of thermoelectric performances of nanoscale bilayered heterostructures in general, when band offset, Fermi level, and individual electronic properties are available. This work can be further extended to predict performance of other nanoscale combinations of thermoelectric and other electronic materials in general.

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  4. Abstract

    The reactivity of water with Li‐rich layered Li2RuO3and partial exchange of Li2O with H2O within the structure is studied under aqueous (electro)chemical conditions. Upon slow delithiation in water over long time periods, micron‐sized Li2RuO3particles structurally transform from an O3 structure to an O1 structure with a corresponding loss of 1.25 Li ions per formula unit. The O1 stacking of the honeycomb Ru layers is imaged using high‐resolution high‐angle annular dark‐field scanning transmission electron microscopy, and the resulting structure is solved by X‐ray powder diffraction and electron diffraction. In situ X‐ray absorption spectroscopy suggests that reversible oxidation/reduction of bulk Ru sites is realized on potential cycling between 0.4 and 1.25 VRHEin basic solutions. In addition to surface redox pseudocapacitance, the partially delithiated phase of Li2RuO3shows high capacity, which can be attributed to bulk Ru redox in the structure. This work demonstrates that the interaction of aqueous electrolytes with Li‐rich layered oxides can result in the formation of new phases with (electro)chemical properties that are distinct from the parent material. This understanding is important for the design of aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, and chemically stable cathode materials for Li‐ion batteries.

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  5. Abstract

    Supercapacitor fibers, with short charging times, long cycle lifespans, and high power densities, hold promise for powering flexible fabric‐based electronics. To date, however, only short lengths of functioning fiber supercapacitors have been produced. The primary goal of this study is to introduce a supercapacitor fiber that addresses the remaining challenges of scalability, flexibility, cladding impermeability, and performance at length. This is achieved through a top‐down fabrication method in which a macroscale preform is thermally drawn into a fully functional energy‐storage fiber. The preform consists of five components: thermally reversible porous electrode and electrolyte gels; conductive polymer and copper microwire current collectors; and an encapsulating hermetic cladding. This process produces 100 m of continuous functional supercapacitor fiber, orders of magnitude longer than any previously reported. In addition to flexibility (5 mm radius of curvature), moisture resistance (100 washing cycles), and strength (68 MPa), these fibers have an energy density of 306 μWh cm−2at 3.0 V and ≈100% capacitance retention over 13 000 cycles at 1.6 V. To demonstrate the utility of this fiber, it is machine‐woven and used as filament for 3D printing.

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