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  1. Abstract We present the first results from Citizen ASAS-SN, a citizen science project for the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) hosted on the Zooniverse platform. Citizen ASAS-SN utilizes the newer, deeper, higher cadence ASAS-SN g -band data and tasks volunteers to classify periodic variable star candidates based on their phased light curves. We started from 40,640 new variable candidates from an input list of ∼7.4 million stars with δ < −60° and the volunteers identified 10,420 new discoveries which they classified as 4234 pulsating variables, 3132 rotational variables, 2923 eclipsing binaries, and 131 variables flagged as Unknown. They classifiedmore »known variable stars with an accuracy of 89% for pulsating variables, 81% for eclipsing binaries, and 49% for rotational variables. We examine user performance, agreement between users, and compare the citizen science classifications with our machine learning classifier updated for the g -band light curves. In general, user activity correlates with higher classification accuracy and higher user agreement. We used the user’s “Junk” classifications to develop an effective machine learning classifier to separate real from false variables, and there is a clear path for using this “Junk” training set to significantly improve our primary machine learning classifier. We also illustrate the value of Citizen ASAS-SN for identifying unusual variables with several examples.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  2. We present V -band photometry of the 20 000 brightest asteroids using data from the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) between 2012 and 2018. We were able to apply the convex inversion method to more than 5000 asteroids with more than 60 good measurements in order to derive their sidereal rotation periods, spin axis orientations, and shape models. We derive unique spin state and shape solutions for 760 asteroids, including 163 new determinations. This corresponds to a success rate of about 15%, which is significantly higher than the success rate previously achieved using photometry from surveys. We derive themore »first sidereal rotation periods for additional 69 asteroids. We find good agreement in spin periods and pole orientations for objects with prior solutions. We obtain a statistical sample of asteroid physical properties that is sufficient for the detection of several previously known trends, such as the underrepresentation of slow rotators in current databases, and the anisotropic distribution of spin orientations driven by the nongravitational forces. We also investigate the dependence of spin orientations on the rotation period. Since 2018, ASAS-SN has been observing the sky with higher cadence and a deeper limiting magnitude, which will lead to many more new solutions in just a few years.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  3. ABSTRACT We report on the search for electromagnetic counterparts to the nine gravitational-wave events with a >60 per cent probability of containing a neutron star during the third observing run (O3) of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)–Virgo Collaboration (LVC) with the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN). No optical counterparts associated with a gravitational-wave event were found. However, thanks to its network of telescopes, the average area visible to at least one ASAS-SN site during the first 10 h after the trigger contained ∼30 per cent of the integrated source location probability. Through a combination of normal operations and target-of-opportunity observations, ASAS-SN observations ofmore »the highest probability fields began within 1 h of the trigger for four of the events. After 24 h, ASAS-SN observed >60 per cent of total probability for three events and >40 per cent for all but one of the events. This is the largest area coverage to a depth of g = 18.5 mag from any survey with published coverage statistics for seven of the nine events. With its observing strategy, five sites around the world, and a large field of view, ASAS-SN will be one of the leading surveys to optically search for nearby neutron star mergers during LVC fourth observation run (O4).« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 27, 2022
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  5. ABSTRACT We present observations from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) of twenty bright core-collapse supernovae with peak TESS-band magnitudes ≲18 mag. We reduce this data with an implementation of the image subtraction pipeline used by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) optimized for use with the TESS images. In empirical fits to the rising light curves, we do not find strong correlations between the fit parameters and the peak luminosity. Existing semi-analytic models fit the light curves of the Type II supernovae well, but do not yield reasonable estimates of the progenitor radius or explosion energy, likely because theymore »are derived for use with ultraviolet observations while TESS observes in the near-infrared. If we instead fit the data with numerically simulated light curves, the rising light curves of the Type II supernovae are consistent with the explosions of red supergiants. While we do not identify shock breakout emission for any individual event, when we combine the fit residuals of the Type II supernovae in our sample, we do find a >5σ flux excess in the ∼1 d before the start of the light-curve rise. It is likely that this excess is due to shock breakout emission, and that during its extended mission TESS will observe a Type II supernova bright enough for this signal to be detected directly.« less
  6. Abstract The CNIa0.02 project aims to collect a complete, nearby sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) light curves, and the SNe are volume-limited with host-galaxy redshifts z host < 0.02. The main scientific goal is to infer the distributions of key properties (e.g., the luminosity function) of local SNe Ia in a complete and unbiased fashion in order to study SN explosion physics. We spectroscopically classify any SN candidate detected by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) that reaches a peak brightness <16.5 mag. Since ASAS-SN scans the full sky and does not target specific galaxies, our targetmore »selection is effectively unbiased by host-galaxy properties. We perform multiband photometric observations starting from the time of discovery. In the first data release (DR1), we present the optical light curves obtained for 247 SNe from our project (including 148 SNe in the complete sample), and we derive parameters such as the peak fluxes, Δ m 15 , and s BV .« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 30, 2023
  7. ABSTRACT We characterize the extreme heartbeat star system MACHO 80.7443.1718 in the Large Magellanic Cloud using Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) photometry and spectroscopic observations from the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) and SOAR Goodman spectographs. MACHO 80.7443.1718 was first identified as a heartbeat star system in the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) with $P_{\rm orb}=32.836\pm 0.008\, {\rm d}$. MACHO 80.7443.1718 is a young (∼6 Myr), massive binary, composed of a B0 Iae supergiant with $M_1 \simeq 35\, {\rm M}_\odot$ and an O9.5V secondary with $M_2 \simeq 16\, {\rm M}_\odot$ on an eccentric (e = 0.51 ± 0.03) orbit. In addition tomore »having the largest variability amplitude amongst all known heartbeats stars, MACHO 80.7443.1718 is also one of the most massive heartbeat stars yet discovered. The B[e] supergiant has Balmer emission lines and permitted/forbidden metallic emission lines associated with a circumstellar disc. The disc rapidly dissipates at periastron that could indicate mass transfer to the secondary, but re-emerges immediately following periastron passage. MACHO 80.7443.1718 also shows tidally excited oscillations at the N = 25 and N = 41 orbital harmonics and has a rotational period of 4.4 d.« less
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    ABSTRACT The All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae provides long baseline (∼4 yr) V-band light curves for sources brighter than V≲ 17 mag across the whole sky. We produced V-band light curves for a total of ∼61.5 million sources and systematically searched these sources for variability. We identified ∼426 000 variables, including ∼219 000 new discoveries. Most (${\sim }74{ per\ cent}$) of our discoveries are in the Southern hemisphere. Here, we use spectroscopic information from LAMOST, GALAH, RAVE, and APOGEE to study the physical and chemical properties of these variables. We find that metal-poor eclipsing binaries have orbital periods that are shorter than metal-rich systemsmore »at fixed temperature. We identified rotational variables on the main-sequence, red giant branch, and the red clump. A substantial fraction (${\gtrsim }80{ per\ cent}$) of the rotating giants have large $v$rot or large near-ultraviolet excesses also indicative of fast rotation. The rotational variables have unusual abundances suggestive of analysis problems. Semiregular variables tend to be lower metallicity ($\rm [Fe/H]{\sim }-0.5$) than most giant stars. We find that the APOGEE DR16 temperatures of oxygen-rich semiregular variables are strongly correlated with the WRP − WJK colour index for $\rm T_{eff}\lesssim 3800$ K. Using abundance measurements from APOGEE DR16, we find evidence for Mg and N enrichment in the semiregular variables. We find that the Aluminum abundances of the semiregular variables are strongly correlated with the pulsation period, where the variables with $\rm P\gtrsim 60$ d are significantly depleted in Al.« less