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    The Near Infrared (NIR) spectra of the Type IIb supernova (SN IIb) SN 2020acat, obtained at various times throughout the optical follow-up campaign, are presented here. The dominant He i 1.0830 and 2.0581 $\mu$m features are seen to develop flat-topped P-Cygni profiles as the NIR spectra evolve towards the nebular phase. The nature of the NIR helium peaks imply that there was a lack of mixing between the helium shell and the heavier inner ejecta in SN 2020acat. Analysis of the flat-top features showed that the boundary of the lower velocity of the helium shell was ∼3 − 4 × 103 km s−1. The NIR spectra of SN 2020acat were compared to both SN 2008ax and SN 2011dh to determine the uniqueness of the flat-topped helium features. While SN 2011dh lacked a flat-topped NIR helium profile, SN 2008ax displayed NIR helium features that were very similar to those seen in SN 2020acat, suggesting that the flat-topped feature is not unique to SN 2020acat and may be the product of the progenitors structure.


    We analyse new multifilter Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry of the normal Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2011fe out to ≈2400 d after maximum light, the latest observations to date of a SN Ia. We model the pseudo-bolometric light curve with a simple radioactive decay model and find energy input from both 57Co and 55Fe are needed to power the late-time luminosity. This is the first detection of 55Fe in a SN Ia. We consider potential sources of contamination such as a surviving companion star or delaying the deposition time-scale for 56Co positrons but these scenarios are ultimately disfavored. The relative isotopic abundances place direct constraints on the burning conditions experienced by the white dwarf (WD). Additionally, we place a conservative upper limit of <10−3 M⊙ on the synthesized mass of 44Ti. Only two classes of explosion models are currently consistent with all observations of SN 2011fe: (1) the delayed detonation of a low-ρc, near-MCh (1.2–1.3 M⊙) WD, or (2) a sub-MCh (1.0–1.1 M⊙) WD experiencing a thin-shell double detonation.


    Detached eclipsing binaries are a fundamental tool for measuring the physical parameters of stars that are effectively evolving in isolation. Starting from more than 40 000 eclipsing binary candidates identified by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN), we use PHOEBE to determine the sum of the fractional radii, the ratio of effective temperatures, the inclinations, and the eccentricities for 35 576 systems. We visually inspect all the light-curve models to verify the model fits and examine the TESS light curves, when available, to select systems with evidence for additional physics, such as spots, mass transfer, and hierarchical triples. We examine the distributions of the eclipsing binary model parameters and the orbital parameters. We identify two groups in the sum of the fractional radii and effective temperature ratio parameter space that may distinguish systems approaching the semidetached limit. Combining Gaia EDR3 with extinction estimates from three-dimensional dust maps, we examine the properties of the systems as a function of their absolute magnitude and evolutionary state. Finally, we present light curves of selected eclipsing binaries that may be of interest for follow-up studies.

  4. Abstract

    We present the first estimate of the Galactic nova rate based on optical transient surveys covering the entire sky. Using data from the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) and Gaia—the only two all-sky surveys to report classical nova candidates—we find 39 confirmed Galactic novae and 7 additional unconfirmed candidates discovered from 2019 to 2021, yielding a nova discovery rate of ≈14 yr−1. Using accurate Galactic stellar mass models and three-dimensional dust maps and incorporating realistic nova light curves, we have built a sophisticated Galactic nova model to estimate the fraction of Galactic novae discovered by these surveys over this time period. The observing capabilities of each survey are distinct: the high cadence of ASAS-SN makes it sensitive to fast novae, while the broad observing filter and high spatial resolution of Gaia make it more sensitive to highly reddened novae across the entire Galactic plane and bulge. Despite these differences, we find that ASAS-SN and Gaia give consistent Galactic nova rates, with a final joint nova rate of 26 ± 5 yr−1. This inferred nova rate is substantially lower than found by many other recent studies. Critically assessing the systematic uncertainties in the Galactic nova rate, we argue thatmore »the role of faint, fast-fading novae has likely been overestimated, but that subtle details in the operation of transient alert pipelines can have large, sometimes unappreciated effects on transient recovery efficiency. Our predicted nova rate can be directly tested with forthcoming red/near-infrared transient surveys in the southern hemisphere.

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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 8, 2023
  6. Abstract

    We present three new spectra of the nearby Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2011fe covering ≈480–850 days after maximum light and show that the ejecta undergoes a rapid ionization shift at ∼500 days after explosion. The prominent Feiiiemission lines at ≈4600 Å are replaced with Fei+Feiiblends at ∼4400 Å and ∼5400 Å. The ≈7300 Å feature, which is produced by [Feii]+[Niii] at ≲400 days after explosion, is replaced by broad (≈±15,000 km s−1) symmetric [Caii] emission. Models predict this ionization transition occurring ∼100 days later than what is observed, which we attribute to clumping in the ejecta. Finally, we use the nebular-phase spectra to test several proposed progenitor scenarios for SN 2011fe. Nondetections of H and He exclude nearby nondegenerate companions, [Oi] nondetections disfavor the violent merger of two white dwarfs, and the symmetric emission-line profiles favor a symmetric explosion.

  7. Abstract We present early-time photometric and spectroscopic observations of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2021aefx. The early-time u -band light curve shows an excess flux when compared to normal SNe Ia. We suggest that the early excess blue flux may be due to a rapid change in spectral velocity in the first few days post explosion, produced by the emission of the Ca ii H&K feature passing from the u to the B bands on the timescale of a few days. This effect could be dominant for all SNe Ia that have broad absorption features and early-time velocities over 25,000 km s −1 . It is likely to be one of the main causes of early excess u -band flux in SNe Ia that have early-time high velocities. This effect may also be dominant in the UV filters, as well as in places where the SN spectral energy distribution is quickly rising to longer wavelengths. The rapid change in velocity can only produce a monotonic change (in flux-space) in the u band. For objects that explode at lower velocities, and have a more structured shape in the early excess emission, there must also be an additional parameter producing themore »early-time diversity. More early-time observations, in particular early spectra, are required to determine how prominent this effect is within SNe Ia.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  8. Abstract We present the first results from Citizen ASAS-SN, a citizen science project for the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) hosted on the Zooniverse platform. Citizen ASAS-SN utilizes the newer, deeper, higher cadence ASAS-SN g -band data and tasks volunteers to classify periodic variable star candidates based on their phased light curves. We started from 40,640 new variable candidates from an input list of ∼7.4 million stars with δ < −60° and the volunteers identified 10,420 new discoveries which they classified as 4234 pulsating variables, 3132 rotational variables, 2923 eclipsing binaries, and 131 variables flagged as Unknown. They classified known variable stars with an accuracy of 89% for pulsating variables, 81% for eclipsing binaries, and 49% for rotational variables. We examine user performance, agreement between users, and compare the citizen science classifications with our machine learning classifier updated for the g -band light curves. In general, user activity correlates with higher classification accuracy and higher user agreement. We used the user’s “Junk” classifications to develop an effective machine learning classifier to separate real from false variables, and there is a clear path for using this “Junk” training set to significantly improve our primary machine learning classifier. We also illustratemore »the value of Citizen ASAS-SN for identifying unusual variables with several examples.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  9. We present V -band photometry of the 20 000 brightest asteroids using data from the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) between 2012 and 2018. We were able to apply the convex inversion method to more than 5000 asteroids with more than 60 good measurements in order to derive their sidereal rotation periods, spin axis orientations, and shape models. We derive unique spin state and shape solutions for 760 asteroids, including 163 new determinations. This corresponds to a success rate of about 15%, which is significantly higher than the success rate previously achieved using photometry from surveys. We derive the first sidereal rotation periods for additional 69 asteroids. We find good agreement in spin periods and pole orientations for objects with prior solutions. We obtain a statistical sample of asteroid physical properties that is sufficient for the detection of several previously known trends, such as the underrepresentation of slow rotators in current databases, and the anisotropic distribution of spin orientations driven by the nongravitational forces. We also investigate the dependence of spin orientations on the rotation period. Since 2018, ASAS-SN has been observing the sky with higher cadence and a deeper limiting magnitude, which will lead to many more newmore »solutions in just a few years.« less
  10. ABSTRACT We report on the search for electromagnetic counterparts to the nine gravitational-wave events with a >60 per cent probability of containing a neutron star during the third observing run (O3) of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)–Virgo Collaboration (LVC) with the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN). No optical counterparts associated with a gravitational-wave event were found. However, thanks to its network of telescopes, the average area visible to at least one ASAS-SN site during the first 10 h after the trigger contained ∼30 per cent of the integrated source location probability. Through a combination of normal operations and target-of-opportunity observations, ASAS-SN observations of the highest probability fields began within 1 h of the trigger for four of the events. After 24 h, ASAS-SN observed >60 per cent of total probability for three events and >40 per cent for all but one of the events. This is the largest area coverage to a depth of g = 18.5 mag from any survey with published coverage statistics for seven of the nine events. With its observing strategy, five sites around the world, and a large field of view, ASAS-SN will be one of the leading surveys to optically search for nearby neutron star mergers during LVC fourth observation run (O4).