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    The Andromeda Galaxy is home to the annually erupting recurrent nova (RN) M 31N 2008-12a (12a); the first nova found to host a nova super-remnant (NSR). An NSR is an immense structure surrounding a RN, created from many millions of eruptions sweeping up material in the local environment to form a shell tens of parsecs across. Theory has demonstrated that NSRs should be found around all recurrent novae (RNe), even those systems with long periods between eruptions. Befittingly, the second NSR was found around the Galactic classical (and long suspected recurrent) nova, KT Eridani. In this Paper, we aim to find more of these phenomena through conducting the first ever survey for NSRs in M 31 and the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We find that the surroundings of fourteen RNe in M 31 as well as the surroundings of the four RNe in the LMC do not show any evidence of vast parsec-scale structures in narrow-band (H α and $[{\rm S\, {\small II}}]$) images, unlike the one clearly seen around 12a, and therefore conclude that observable NSRs are either rare structures, or they are too faint (or small) to be detected in our existing data sets. Yet, the NSR surrounding 12a would also likely to have been overlooked in our study if it were approximately one magnitude fainter. Searches for NSRs around other RNe ‘masquerading’ as classical novae may prove to be fruitful as would whole surveys of other Local Group galaxies.

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    A nova super-remnant (NSR) is an immense structure associated with a nova that forms when frequent and recurrent nova (RN) eruptions sweep up surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) into a high-density and distant shell. The prototypical NSR, measuring over 100 pc across, was discovered in 2014 around the annually erupting nova M 31N 2008-12a. Hydrodynamical simulations demonstrated that the creation of a dynamic NSR by repeated eruptions transporting large quantities of ISM is not only feasible but that these structures should exist around all novae, whether the white dwarf (WD) is increasing or decreasing in mass. But it is only the RN with the highest WD masses and accretion rates that should host observable NSRs. KT Eridani is, potentially, the eleventh RNe recorded in the Galaxy and is also surrounded by a recently unveiled H α shell tens of parsecs across, consistent with an NSR. Through modelling the nova ejecta from KT Eri, we demonstrate that such an observable NSR could form in approximately 50 000 yr, which fits with the proper motion history of the nova. We compute the expected H α emission from the KT Eri NSR and predict that the structure might be accessible to wide-field X-ray facilities.

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  3. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT AT 2016dah and AT 2017fyp are fairly typical Andromeda galaxy (M 31) classical novae. AT 2016dah is an almost text book example of a ‘very fast’ declining, yet uncommon, Fe ii‘b’ (broad-lined) nova, discovered during the rise to peak optical luminosity, and decaying with a smooth broken power-law light curve. AT 2017fyp is classed as a ‘fast’ nova, unusually for M 31, its early decline spectrum simultaneously shows properties of both Fe ii and He/N spectral types – a ‘hybrid’. Similarly, the light curve of AT 2017fyp has a broken power-law decline but exhibits an extended flat-topped maximum. Both novae were followed in the UV and X-ray by the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory, but no X-ray source was detected for either nova. The pair were followed photometrically and spectroscopically into their nebular phases. The progenitor systems were not visible in archival optical data, implying that the mass donors are main-sequence stars. What makes AT 2016dah and AT 2017fyp particularly interesting is their position with respect to M 31. The pair are close on the sky but are located far from the centre of M 31, lying almost along the semiminor axis of their host. Radial velocity measurements and simulations of the M 31 nova population leads to the conclusion that both novae are members of the Andromeda Giant Stellar Stream (GSS). We find the probability of at least two M 31 novae appearing coincident with the GSS by chance is $\sim \!1{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$. Therefore, we claim that these novae arose from the GSS progenitor, not M 31 – the first confirmed novae discovered in a tidal steam. 
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