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  1. Destruction of pharmaceuticals excreted in urine can be an efficient approach to eliminate these environmental pollutants. However, urine contains high concentrations of chloride, ammonium, and bicarbonate, which may hinder treatment processes. This study evaluated the application of ferrate(VI) (FeVIO42-, Fe(VI)) to oxidize pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine (CBZ), naproxen (NAP), trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfonamide antibiotics (SAs)) in synthetic hydrolyzed human urine and uncovered new effects from urine’s major inorganic constituents. Chloride slightly decreased pharmaceuticals’ removal rate by Fe(VI) due to the ionic strength effect. Ammonium (0.5 M) in undiluted hydrolyzed urine posed a strong scavenging effect, but lower concentrations (≤ 0.25 M) ofmore »ammonium enhanced the pharmaceuticals’ degradation by 300 µM Fe(VI), likely due to the reactive ammonium complex form of Fe(V)/Fe(IV). For the first time, bicarbonate was found to significantly promote the oxidation of aniline-containing SAs by Fe(VI) and alter the reaction stoichiometry of Fe(VI) and SA from 4:1 to 3:1. In-depth investigation indicated that bicarbonate not only changed the Fe(VI):SA complexation ratio from 1:2 to 1:1, but provided stabilizing effect for Fe(V) intermediate formed in situ, enabling its degradation of SAs. Overall, results of this study suggested that Fe(VI) is a promising oxidant for the removal of pharmaceuticals in hydrolyzed urine.« less
  2. This paper presents ferrate(VI) (FeVIO42-, FeVI) oxidation of a wide range of sulfonamide antibiotics (SAs) containing five- and six-membered heterocyclic moieties (R) in their molecular structures. Kinetics measurements of the reactions between FeVI and SAs at different pH (6.5 – 10.0) give species-specific second-order rate constants, k5 and k6 of the reactions of protonated FeVI (HFeO4-) and unprotonated FeVI (FeVIO42-) with protonated SAs (HX), respectively. The values of k5 varied from (1.2 ± 0.1) × 103 to (2.2 ± 0.2) × 104 M-1 s-1, while the range of k6 was from (1.1 ± 0.1) × 102 to (1.0 ± 0.1)more »× 103 M-1 s-1 for different SAs. The transformation products of reaction between FeVI and sulfadiazine (SDZ, contains a six-membered R) include SO2 extrusion oxidized products (OPs) and aniline hydroxylated products. Comparatively, oxidation of sulfisoxazole (SIZ, a five-membered R) by FeVI has OPs that have no SO2 extrusion in their structures. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to demonstrate SO2 extrusion in oxidation of SDZ by FeVI. The detailed mechanisms of oxidation are proposed to describe the differences in the oxidation of six- and five-membered heterocyclic moieties (R) containing SAs (i.e., SDZ versus SIZ) by FeVI.« less