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  1. Abstract The origin of the eclogites that reside in cratonic mantle roots has long been debated. In the classic Roberts Victor kimberlite locality in South Africa, the strongly contrasting textural and geochemical features of two types of eclogites have led to different genetic models. We studied a new suite of 63 eclogite xenoliths from the former Roberts Victor Mine. In addition to major- and trace-element compositions for all new samples, we determined 18O/16O for garnet from 34eclogites. Based on geochemical and textural characteristics we identify a large suite of Type I eclogites (n = 53) consistent with previous interpretations that these rocks originate from metamorphosed basaltic-picritic lavas or gabbroic cumulates from oceanic crust, crystallised from melts of depleted mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) mantle. We identify a smaller set of Type II eclogites (n = 10) based on geochemical and textural similarity to eclogites in published literature. We infer their range to very low δ18O values combined with their varied, often very low zirconium-hafnium (Zr-Hf) ratios and light rare earth element-depleted nature to indicate a protolith origin via low-pressure clinopyroxene-bearing oceanic cumulates formed from melts that were more depleted in incompatible elements than N-MORB. These compositions are indicative of derivation from a residual mantle sourcemore »that experienced preferential extraction of incompatible elements and fractionation of Zr/Hf during previous melting.« less
  2. Understanding physiological traits and ecological conditions that influence a species reliance on metabolic water is critical to creating accurate physiological models that can assess their ability to adapt to environmental perturbations (e.g., drought) that impact water availability. However, relatively few studies have examined variation in the sources of water animals use to maintain water balance, and even fewer have focused on the role of metabolic water. A key reason is methodological limitations. Here, we applied a new method that measures the triple oxygen isotopic composition of a single blood sample to estimate the contribution of metabolic water to the body water pool of three passerine species. This approach relies on Δ' 17 O, defined as the residual from the tight linear correlation that naturally exists between δ 17 O and δ 18 O values. Importantly, Δ'17O is relatively insensitive to key fractionation processes, such as Rayleigh distillation in the water cycle that have hindered previous isotope-based assessments of animal water balance. We evaluated the effects of changes in metabolic rate and water intake on Δ' 17 O values of captive rufous-collared sparrows ( Zonotrichia capensis ) and two invertivorous passerine species in the genus Cinclodes from the field. As predicted,more »colder acclimation temperatures induced increases in metabolic rate, decreases in water intake, and increases in the contribution of metabolic water to the body water pool of Z. capensis , causing a consistent change in Δ' 17 O. Measurement of Δ' 17 O also provides an estimate of the δ 18 O composition of ingested pre-formed (drinking/food) water. Estimated δ 18 O values of drinking/food water for captive Z. capensis were ~ −11‰, which is consistent with that of tap water in Santiago, Chile. In contrast, δ 18 O values of drinking/food water ingested by wild-caught Cinclodes were similar to that of seawater, which is consistent with their reliance on marine resources. Our results confirm the utility of this method for quantifying the relative contribution of metabolic versus pre-formed drinking/food water to the body water pool in birds.« less