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  1. Abstract Motivation

    Figures in biomedical papers communicate essential information with the potential to identify relevant documents in biomedical and clinical settings. However, academic search interfaces mainly search over text fields.


    We describe a search system for biomedical documents that leverages image modalities and an existing index server. We integrate a problem-specific taxonomy of image modalities and image-based data into a custom search system. Our solution features a front-end interface to enhance classical document search results with image-related data, including page thumbnails, figures, captions and image-modality information. We demonstrate the system on a subset of the CORD-19 document collection. A quantitative evaluation demonstrates higher precision and recall for biomedical document retrieval. A qualitative evaluation with domain experts further highlights our solution’s benefits to biomedical search.

    Availability and implementation

    A demonstration is available at Our code and image models can be accessed via The dataset is continuously expanded.

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  2. This work proposes a domain-informed neural network architecture for experimental particle physics, using particle interaction localization with the time-projection chamber (TPC) technology for dark matter research as an example application. A key feature of the signals generated within the TPC is that they allow localization of particle interactions through a process called reconstruction (i.e., inverse-problem regression). While multilayer perceptrons (MLPs) have emerged as a leading contender for reconstruction in TPCs, such a black-box approach does not reflect prior knowledge of the underlying scientific processes. This paper looks anew at neural network-based interaction localization and encodes prior detector knowledge, in terms of both signal characteristics and detector geometry, into the feature encoding and the output layers of a multilayer (deep) neural network. The resulting neural network, termed Domain-informed Neural Network (DiNN), limits the receptive fields of the neurons in the initial feature encoding layers in order to account for the spatially localized nature of the signals produced within the TPC. This aspect of the DiNN, which has similarities with the emerging area of graph neural networks in that the neurons in the initial layers only connect to a handful of neurons in their succeeding layer, significantly reduces the number of parameters in the network in comparison to an MLP. In addition, in order to account for the detector geometry, the output layers of the network are modified using two geometric transformations to ensure the DiNN produces localizations within the interior of the detector. The end result is a neural network architecture that has 60% fewer parameters than an MLP, but that still achieves similar localization performance and provides a path to future architectural developments with improved performance because of their ability to encode additional domain knowledge into the architecture. 
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