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  1. Abstract We identify 51 near-contemporaneous earthquake pairs along a 100 km segment of California’s San Andreas fault south of San Juan Bautista between 1981 and 2021 that are separated by 5–50 s in time and 5–50 km in space. The event pairs are found throughout the time period and generally involve events smaller than magnitude 2. For 42 of these pairs (82%), the later earthquake is northwest of the earlier event—an asymmetry that is hard to explain with standard earthquake triggering models and suggests an underlying physical connection between the events. We explore possible origins for these observations but are unable to identify a definitive explanation. 
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  2. Abstract

    Template matching has proven to be an effective method for seismic event detection, but is biased toward identifying events similar to previously known events, and thus is ineffective at discovering events with non‐matching waveforms (e.g., those dissimilar to existing catalog events). In principle, this limitation can be overcome by cross‐correlating every segment (possible template) of a seismogram with every other segment to identify all similar event pairs, but doing so has been previously considered computationally infeasible for long time series. Here we describe a method, called the ‘Matrix Profile’ (MP), a “correlate everything with everything” calculation that can be efficiently and scalably computed. The MP returns the maximum value of the correlation coefficient of every sub‐window of continuous data with every other sub‐window, as well as the best‐correlated sub‐window location. Here we show how MP methods can obtain valuable results when applied to months and years of continuous seismic data in both local and global case studies. We find that the MP can identify many new events in Parkfield, California seismicity that are not contained in existing event catalogs and that it can efficiently find clusters of similar earthquakes in global seismic data. Either used by itself, or as a starting point for subsequent template matching calculations, the MP is likely to provide a useful new tool for seismology research.

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  3. Abstract

    Seismic noise has been widely used to image Earth's structure in the past decades as a powerful supplement to earthquake signals. Although the seismic noise field contains both surface‐wave and body‐wave components, most previous studies have focused on surface waves due to their large amplitudes. Here, we use array analyses to identify body‐wave noise traveling asPKPwaves. We find that by cross‐correlating the array‐stacked horizontal‐ and vertical‐component data in the time windows containing thePKPnoise signals, we extract a phase likely representingPKS‐PKP, the differential phase betweenPKSandPKP. This phase can potentially be used for shear‐wave‐splitting analysis. Our results also suggest that the sources of body‐wave noise are extremely heterogeneous in both space and time, which should be accounted for in future studies using body‐wave noise to image Earth structure.

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  5. Abstract

    We examine the spatiotemporal variations in seismic parameters corresponding to the 2018 Kīlauea eruption. We find that the summit area had mainly strike‐slip focal solutions prior to the eruption, whereas normal‐faulting was the predominant feature during the eruption, partially due to the collapse events. In contrast, the majority of the earthquakes in the central south flank had normal‐faulting solutions before December 2017, in agreement with the normal‐faulting of the Hilina Fault System, while there are more reverse solutions during the eruption. We also observe temporal variations in the estimated in situratios corresponding to the eruption, with increases in the summit and decreases in the East Rift Zone. The sustained lowratios below 4 km depth under the summit caldera may suggest persistent ascent of volatiles from the mantle. The lowvalues in the East Rift Zone are probably associated with increased degassing.

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  6. Abstract

    Lithospheric discontinuities, including the lithosphere‐asthenosphere boundary (LAB) and the enigmatic mid‐lithospheric discontinuities (MLDs), hold important clues about the structure and evolution of tectonic plates. However, P‐ and S‐receiver‐function (PRF and SRF) techniques, two traditional techniques to image Earth's deep discontinuities, have some shortcomings in imaging lithosphere discontinuities. Here, we propose a new method using reflections generated by teleseismic S waves (hereafter S‐reflections) to image lithospheric discontinuities, which are less affected by multiple phases than PRFs and have better depth resolution than SRFs. We apply this method to the data collected by the Transportable Array and other regional seismic networks and obtain new high‐resolution images of the lithosphere below the contiguous US. Beneath the tectonically active Western US, we observe a negative polarity reflector (NPR) in the depth range of 60–110 km, with greatly varying amplitude and depth, which correlates with active tectonic processes. We interpret this feature as the LAB below the Western US. Beneath the tectonically stable Central and Eastern US, we observe two NPRs in the depth ranges of 60–100 km and 100–150 km, whose amplitude and depth also vary significantly, and which appear to correlate with past tectonic processes. We interpret these features as MLDs below the Central and Eastern US. Our results show reasonable agreement with results from PRFs, which have similar depth resolution, suggesting the possibility of joint inversion of S‐reflections and PRFs to constrain the properties of lithospheric discontinuities.

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  7. Abstract

    Abundant seismicity beneath the Island of Hawai‘i from mantle depths to the surface plays a central role in understanding how volcanoes work, grow, and evolve at this intraplate oceanic hotspot. We perform systematic waveform cross‐correlation, cluster analysis, and relative relocation of 347,445 events representing 32 years of seismicity on and around the island from 1986 to 2018. We successfully relocate 275,009 (79%) events using ∼1.7 billion differential times (PandS) from ∼128 million similar‐event pairs. The results reveal a dramatic sharpening of seismicity along faults, streaks, rings, rift zones, magma pathways, and mantle fault zones; seismicity delineating crustal detachments on the flanks of Kīlauea and Mauna Loa is particularly well‐resolved. The resulting high‐precision spatio‐temporal image of seismicity captures almost the entire 1983–2018 Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō‐Kūpaianaha eruption of Kīlauea with its numerous distinct episodes and wide‐ranging activity, culminating in the 2018 lower East Rift Zone eruption and summit collapse.

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  8. Abstract

    Topside reverberations off mantle discontinuities are commonly observed at long periods, but their interpretation is complicated because they include both near‐source and near‐receiver reflections. We have developed a method to isolate the stationside reflectors in large data sets with many sources and receivers. Analysis of USArray transverse‐component data from 3,200 earthquakes, using directSas a reference phase, shows clear reflections off the 410‐ and 660‐km discontinuities, which can be used to map the depth and brightness of these features. Because our results are sensitive to the impedance contrast (velocity and density), they provide a useful complement to receiver‐function studies, which are primarily sensitive to theSvelocity jump alone. In addition, reflectors in our images are more spread out in time than in receiver functions, providing good depth resolution. Our images show strong discontinuities near 410 and 660 km across the entire USArray footprint, with intriguing reflectors at shallower depths in many regions. Overall, the discontinuities in the east appear simpler and more monotonous with a uniform transition zone thickness of  250 km compared to the western United States. In the west, we observe more complex discontinuity topography and small‐scale changes below the Great Basin and the Rocky Mountains, and a decrease in transition‐zone thickness along the western coast. We also observe a dipping reflector in the west that aligns with the top of the high‐velocity Farallon slab anomaly seen in some tomography models, but which also may be an artifact caused by near‐surface scattering of incomingSwaves.

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  9. The Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain that includes the Hawaiian volcanoes was created by the Hawaiian mantle plume. Although the mantle plume hypothesis predicts an oceanic plateau produced by massive decompression melting during the initiation stage of the Hawaiian hot spot, the fate of this plateau is unclear. We discovered a megameter-scale portion of thickened oceanic crust in the uppermost lower mantle west of the Sea of Okhotsk by stacking seismic waveforms ofSSprecursors. We propose that this thick crust represents a major part of the oceanic plateau that was created by the Hawaiian plume head ~100 million years ago and subducted 20 million to 30 million years ago. Our discovery provides temporal and spatial clues of the early history of the Hawaiian plume for future plate reconstructions.

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  10. Abstract

    We combine earthquake spectra from multiple studies to investigate whether the increase in stress drop with depth often observed in the crust is real, or an artifact of decreasing attenuation (increasingQ) with depth. In many studies, empirical path and attenuation corrections are assumed to be independent of the earthquake source depth. We test this assumption by investigating whether a realistic increase inQwith depth (as is widely observed) could remove some of the observed apparent increase in stress drop with depth. We combine event spectra, previously obtained using spectral decomposition methods, for over 50,000 earthquakes (M0 to M5) from 12 studies in California, Nevada, Kansas and Oklahoma. We find that the relative high‐frequency content of the spectra systematically increases with increasing earthquake depth, at all magnitudes. By analyzing spectral ratios between large and small events as a function of source depth, we explore the relative importance of source and attenuation contributions to this observed depth dependence. Without any correction for depth‐dependent attenuation, we find a systematic increase in stress drop, rupture velocity, or both, with depth, as previously observed. When we add an empirical, depth‐dependent attenuation correction, the depth dependence of stress drop systematically decreases, often becoming negligible. The largest corrections are observed in regions with the largest seismic velocity increase with depth. We conclude that source parameter analyses, whether in the frequency or time domains, should not assume path terms are independent of source depth, and should more explicitly consider the effects of depth‐dependent attenuation.

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