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  1. Abstract

    Populating the exoplanet mass–radius diagram in order to identify the underlying relationship that governs planet composition is driving an interdisciplinary effort within the exoplanet community. The discovery of hot super-Earths—a high-temperature, short-period subset of the super-Earth planet population—has presented many unresolved questions concerning the formation, evolution, and composition of rocky planets. We report the discovery of a transiting, ultra-short-period hot super-Earth orbitingTOI-1075(TIC351601843), a nearby (d= 61.4 pc) late-K/early-M-dwarf star, using data from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite. The newly discovered planet has a radius of 1.7910.081+0.116Rand an orbital period of 0.605 day (14.5 hr). We precisely measure the planet mass to be 9.951.30+1.36Musing radial velocity measurements obtained with the Planet Finder Spectrograph mounted on the Magellan II telescope. Our radial velocity data also show a long-term trend, suggesting an additional planet in the system. While TOI-1075 b is expected to have a substantial H/He atmosphere given its size relative to the radius gap, its high density (9.321.85+2.05g cm−3) is likely inconsistent with this possibility. We explore TOI-1075 b’s location relative to the M-dwarf radius valley, evaluate the planet’s prospects for atmospheric characterization, andmore »discuss potential planet formation mechanisms. Studying the TOI-1075 system in the broader context of ultra-short-period planetary systems is necessary for testing planet formation and evolution theories and density-enhancing mechanisms and for future atmospheric and surface characterization studies via emission spectroscopy with the JWST.

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  2. Abstract

    We analyze 5108 AFGKM stars with at least five high-precision radial velocity points, as well as Gaia and Hipparcos astrometric data, utilizing a novel pipeline developed in previous work. We find 914 radial velocity signals with periods longer than 1000 days. Around these signals, 167 cold giants and 68 other types of companions are identified, through combined analyses of radial velocity, astrometry, and imaging data. Without correcting for detection bias, we estimate the minimum occurrence rate of the wide-orbit brown dwarfs to be 1.3%, and find a significant brown-dwarf valley around 40MJup. We also find a power-law distribution in the host binary fraction beyond 3 au, similar to that found for single stars, indicating no preference of multiplicity for brown dwarfs. Our work also reveals nine substellar systems (GJ 234 B, GJ 494 B, HD 13724 b, HD 182488 b, HD 39060 b and c, HD 4113 C, HD 42581 d, HD 7449 B, and HD 984 b) that have previously been directly imaged, and many others that are observable at existing facilities. Depending on their ages, we estimate that an additional 10–57 substellar objects within our sample can be detected with current imaging facilities, extending the imaged coldmore »(or old) giants by an order of magnitude.

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  3. ABSTRACT This paper presents a survey of Mg ii absorbing gas in the vicinity of 380 random galaxies, using 156 background quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) as absorption-line probes. The sample comprises 211 isolated (73 quiescent and 138 star-forming galaxies) and 43 non-isolated galaxies with sensitive constraints for both Mg ii absorption and H α emission. The projected distances span a range from d = 9 to 497 kpc, redshifts of the galaxies range from z = 0.10 to 0.48, and rest-frame absolute B-band magnitudes range from MB = −16.7 to −22.8. Our analysis shows that the rest-frame equivalent width of Mg ii, Wr(2796), depends on halo radius (Rh), B-band luminosity(LB), and stellar mass (Mstar) of the host galaxies, and declines steeply with increasing d for isolated, star-forming galaxies. At the same time, Wr(2796) exhibits no clear trend for either isolated, quiescent galaxies or non-isolated galaxies. In addition, the covering fraction of Mg ii absorbing gas 〈κ〉 is high with 〈κ〉 ≳ 60 per cent at <40 kpc for isolated galaxies and declines rapidly to 〈κ〉 ≈ 0 at d ≳ 100 kpc. Within the gaseous radius, the incidence of Mg ii gas depends sensitively on both Mstar and the specific star formation rate inferred from H α. Different from what is known for massive quiescent haloes,more »the observed velocity dispersion of Mg ii absorbing gas around star-forming galaxies is consistent with expectations from virial motion, which constrains individual clump mass to $m_{\rm cl} \gtrsim 10^5 \, \rm M_\odot$ and cool gas accretion rate of $\sim 0.7\!-\!2 \, \mathrm{ M}_\odot \, \rm yr^{-1}$. Finally, we find no strong azimuthal dependence of Mg ii absorption for either star-forming or quiescent galaxies. Our results demonstrate that multiple parameters affect the properties of gaseous haloes around galaxies and highlight the need of a homogeneous, absorption-blind sample for establishing a holistic description of chemically enriched gas in the circumgalactic space.« less