skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Shen, G."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. The first study of the effect of the initial microstructure on its evolution under hydrostatic compression before, during, and after the irreversible α → ω phase transformation and during pressure release in Zr using in situ x-ray diffraction is presented. Two samples were studied: one is plastically pre-deformed Zr with saturated hardness and the other is annealed. Phase transformation α → ω initiates at lower pressure for pre-deformed sample but above volume fraction of ω Zr c = 0.7, larger volume fraction is observed for the annealed sample. This implies that the general theory based on the proportionality between the athermal resistance to the transformation and the yield strength must be essentially advanced. The crystal domain size significantly reduces, and microstrain and dislocation density increase during loading for both α and ω phases in their single-phase regions. For the α phase, domain sizes are much smaller for prestrained Zr, while microstrain and dislocation densities are much higher. For the cold-rolled sample at 5.9 GPa (just before initiation of transformation), domain size in α Zr decreased to ∼ 45 nm and dislocation density increased to 1.1 × 1015 lines/m2 , values similar to those after severe plastic deformation under high pressure. Despite the generally accepted concept that hydrostatic pressure does not cause plastic straining, it does and is estimated. During transformation, the first rule was found: The average domain size, microstrain, and dislocation density in ω Zr for c < 0.8 are functions of the volume fraction of ω Zr only, which are independent of the plastic strain tensor prior to transformation and pressure. The microstructure is not inherited during phase transformation. Surprisingly, for the annealed sample, the final dislocation density and average microstrain after pressure release in the ω phase are larger than for the severely pre-deformed sample. The significant evolution of the microstructure and its effect on phase transformation demonstrates that their postmortem evaluation does not represent the actual conditions during loading. A simple model for the initiation of the phase transformation involving microstrain is suggested. The results suggest that an extended experimental basis is required for the predictive models for the combined pressure-induced phase transformations and microstructure evolutions. 
    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 22, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 8, 2024
  3. The anomalously low thermal expansion of Fe-Ni Invar has long been associated with magnetism, but to date, the microscopic underpinnings of Invar behavior have eluded both theory and experiment. Here, we present nuclear resonant X-ray scattering measurements of the phonon and magnetic entropy under pressure. By applying a thermodynamic Maxwell relation to these data, we obtain the separate phonon and magnetic contributions to thermal expansion. We find that the Invar behavior stems from a competition between phonons and spins. In particular, the phonon contribution to thermal expansion cancels the magnetic contribution over the 0 - 3 GPa pressure range of Invar behavior. At pressures above 3 GPa the cancellation is lost, but our analysis reproduces the positive thermal expansion measured separately by synchrotron X-ray diffractometry. Ab initio calculations informed by experimental data show that spin-phonon interactions improve the accuracy of this cancellation over the range of Invar behavior. Spin-phonon interactions also explain how different phonon modes have different energy shifts with pressure. 
    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 27, 2024