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  1. Differential obliviousness (DO) is a privacy notion which guarantees that the access patterns of a program satisfies differential privacy. Differential obliviousness was studied in a sequence of recent works as a relaxation of full obliviousness. Earlier works showed that DO not only allows us to circumvent the logarithmic-overhead barrier of fully oblivious algorithms, in many cases, it also allows us to achieve polynomial speedup over full obliviousness, since it avoids “padding to the worst-case” behavior of fully oblivious algorithms. Despite the promises of differential obliviousness (DO), a significant barrier that hinders its broad application is the lack of composability. In particular, when we apply one DO algorithm to the output of another DO algorithm, the composed algorithm may no longer be DO (with reasonable parameters). Specifically, the outputs of the first DO algorithm on two neighboring inputs may no longer be neighboring, and thus we cannot directly benefit from the DO guarantee of the second algorithm. In this work, we are the first to explore a theory of composition for differentially oblivious algorithms. We propose a refinement of the DO notion called (ε, δ)-neighbor-preserving-DO, or (ε,δ)-NPDO for short, and we prove that our new notion indeed provides nice compositional guarantees. In this way, the algorithm designer can easily track the privacy loss when composing multiple DO algorithms. We give several example applications to showcase the power and expressiveness of our new NPDO notion. One of these examples is a result of independent interest: we use the com- positional framework to prove an optimal privacy amplification theorem for the differentially oblivious shuffle model. In other words, we show that for a class of distributed differentially private mechanisms in the shuffle-model, one can replace the perfectly secure shuffler with a DO shuffler, and nonetheless enjoy almost the same privacy amplification enabled by a shuffler. 
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  2. Many proofs of interactive cryptographic protocols (e.g., as in Universal Composability) operate by proving the protocol at hand to be observationally equivalent to an idealized specification. While pervasive, formal tool support for observational equivalence of cryptographic protocols is still a nascent area of research. Current mechanization efforts tend to either focus on diff-equivalence, which establishes observational equivalence between protocols with identical control structures, or require an explicit witness for the observational equivalence in the form of a bisimulation relation. Our goal is to simplify proofs for cryptographic protocols by introducing a core calculus, IPDL, for cryptographic observational equivalences. Via IPDL, we aim to address a number of theoretical issues for cryptographic proofs in a simple manner, including probabilistic behaviors, distributed message-passing, and resource-bounded adversaries and simulators. We demonstrate IPDL on a number of case studies, including a distributed coin toss protocol, Oblivious Transfer, and the GMW multi-party computation protocol. All proofs of case studies are mechanized via an embedding of IPDL into the Coq proof assistant. 
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  3. Storage-as-a-service (STaaS) permits the client to outsource her data to the cloud, thereby reducing data management and maintenance costs. However, STaaS also brings significant data integrity and soundness concerns since the storage provider might not keep the client data intact and retrievable all the time (e.g., cost saving via deletions). Proof of Retrievability (PoR) can validate the integrity and retrievability of remote data effectively. This technique can be useful for regular audits to monitor data compromises, as well as to comply with standard data regulations. In particular, cold storage applications (e.g., MS Azure, Amazon Glacier) require regular and frequent audits with less frequent data modification. Yet, despite their merits, existing PoR techniques generally focus on other metrics (e.g., low storage, fast update, metadata privacy) but not audit efficiency (e.g., low audit time, small proof size). Hence, there is a need to develop new PoR techniques that achieve efficient data audit while preserving update and retrieval performance. In this paper, we propose Porla, a new PoR framework that permits efficient data audit, update, and retrieval functionalities simultaneously. Porla permits data audit in both private and public settings, each of which features asymptotically (and concretely) smaller audit-proof size and lower audit time than all the prior works while retaining the same asymptotic data update overhead. Porla achieves all these properties by composing erasure codes with verifiable computation techniques which, to our knowledge, is a new approach to PoR design. We address several challenges that arise in such a composition by creating a new homomorphic authenticated commitment scheme, which can be of independent interest. We fully implemented Porla and evaluated its performance on commodity cloud (i.e., Amazon EC2) under various settings. Experimental results demonstrated that Porla achieves two to four orders of magnitude smaller audit proof size with 4x–18000x lower audit time than all prior schemes in both private and public audit settings at the cost of only 2x–3x slower update. 
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  4. Azar, Yossi (Ed.)
    A data-oblivious algorithm is an algorithm whose memory access pattern is independent of the input values. We initiate the study of parallel data oblivious algorithms on realistic multicores, best captured by the binary fork-join model of computation. We present a data-oblivious CREW binary fork-join sorting algorithm with optimal total work and optimal (cache-oblivious) cache complexity, and in O(łog n łog łog n) span (i.e., parallel time); these bounds match the best-known bounds for binary fork-join cache-efficient insecure algorithms. Using our sorting algorithm as a core primitive, we show how to data-obliviously simulate general PRAM algorithms in the binary fork-join model with non-trivial efficiency, and we present data-oblivious algorithms for several applications including list ranking, Euler tour, tree contraction, connected components, and minimum spanning forest. All of our data oblivious algorithms have bounds that either match or improve over the best known bounds for insecure algorithms. Complementing these asymptotically efficient results, we present a practical variant of our sorting algorithm that is self-contained and potentially implementable. It has optimal caching cost, and it is only a łog łog n factor off from optimal work and about a łog n factor off in terms of span. We also present an EREW variant with optimal work and caching cost, and with the same asymptotic span. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
  6. Modern distributed systems involve interactions between principals with limited trust, so cryptographic mechanisms are needed to protect confidentiality and integrity. At the same time, most developers lack the training to securely employ cryptography. We present Viaduct, a compiler that transforms high-level programs into secure, efficient distributed realizations. Viaduct's source language allows developers to declaratively specify security policies by annotating their programs with information flow labels. The compiler uses these labels to synthesize distributed programs that use cryptography efficiently while still defending the source-level security policy. The approach is general, and can be easily extended with new security mechanisms. Our implementation of the compiler comes with an extensible runtime system that includes plug-in support for multiparty computation, commitments, and zero-knowledge proofs. We have evaluated the system on a set of benchmarks, and the results indicate that our approach is feasible and can use cryptography in efficient, nontrivial ways. 
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  7. null (Ed.)
    We consider the security of two of the most commonly used cryptographic primitives—message authentication codes (MACs) and pseudorandom functions (PRFs)—in a multi-user setting with adaptive corruption. Whereas is it well known that any secure MAC or PRF is also multi-user secure under adaptive corruption, the trivial reduction induces a security loss that is linear in the number of users. Our main result shows that black-box reductions from “standard” assumptions cannot be used to provide a tight, or even a linear-preserving, security reduction for adaptive multi-user secure deterministic stateless MACs and thus also PRFs. In other words, a security loss that grows with the number of users is necessary for any such black-box reduction. 
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