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  1. Integrating renewable energy into the manufacturing facility is the ultimate key to realising carbon-neutral operations. Although many firms have taken various initiatives to reduce the carbon footprint of their facilities, there are few quantitative studies focused on cost analysis and supply reliability of integrating intermittent wind and solar power. This paper aims to fill this gap by addressing the following question: shall we adopt power purchase agreement (PPA) or onsite renewable generation to realise the eco-economic benefits? We tackle this complex decision-making problem by considering two regulatory options: government carbon incentives and utility pricing policy. A stochastic programming model is formulated to search for the optimal mix of onsite and offsite renewable power supply. The model is tested extensively in different regions under various climatic conditions. Three findings are obtained. First, in a long term onsite generation and PPA can avoid the price volatility in the spot or wholesale electricity market. Second, at locations where the wind speed is below 6 m/s, PPA at $70/MWh is preferred over onsite wind generation. Third, compared to PPA and wind generation, solar generation is not economically competitive unless the capacity cost is down below USD1.5 M per MW. 
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  2. Some arsenite [As(III)]-oxidizing bacteria exhibit positive chemotaxis towards As(III), however, the related As(III) chemoreceptor and regulatory mechanism remain unknown. The As(III)-oxidizing bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4 displays positive chemotaxis towards 0.5–2 mM As(III). Genomic analyses revealed a putative chemoreceptor-encoding gene, mcp, located in the arsenic gene island and having a predicted promoter binding site for the As(III) oxidation regulator AioR. Expression of mcp and other chemotaxis related genes (cheA, cheY2 and fliG) was inducible by As(III), but not in the aioR mutant. Using capillary assays and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence spectra analysis, Mcp was confirmed to be responsible for chemotaxis towards As(III) and to bind As(III) (but not As(V) nor phosphate) as part of the sensing mechanism. A bacterial one-hybrid system technique and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that AioR interacts with the mcp regulatory region in vivo and in vitro, and the precise AioR binding site was confirmed using DNase I foot-printing. Taken together, these results indicate that this Mcp is responsible for the chemotactic response towards As(III) and is regulated by AioR. Additionally, disrupting the mcp gene affected bacterial As(III) oxidation and growth, inferring that Mcp may exert some sort of functional connection between As(III) oxidation and As(III) chemotaxis. 
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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  5. Abstract

    A description is presented of the algorithms used to reconstruct energy deposited in the CMS hadron calorimeter during Run 2 (2015–2018) of the LHC. During Run 2, the characteristic bunch-crossing spacing for proton-proton collisions was 25 ns, which resulted in overlapping signals from adjacent crossings. The energy corresponding to a particular bunch crossing of interest is estimated using the known pulse shapes of energy depositions in the calorimeter, which are measured as functions of both energy and time. A variety of algorithms were developed to mitigate the effects of adjacent bunch crossings on local energy reconstruction in the hadron calorimeter in Run 2, and their performance is compared.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024