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  1. Functional porous metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have been explored for a number of potential applications in catalysis, chemical sensing, water capture, gas storage, and separation. MOFs are among the most promising candidates to address challenges facing our society related to energy and environment, but the successful implementation of functional porous MOF materials are contingent on their stability; therefore, the rational design of stable MOFs plays an important role towards the development of functional porous MOFs. In this Focus article, we summarize progress in the rational design and synthesis of stable MOFs with controllable pores and functionalities. The implementation of reticular chemistry allows for the rational top-down design of stable porous MOFs with targeted topological networks and pore structures from the pre-selected building blocks. We highlight the reticular synthesis and applications of stable MOFs: (1) MOFs based on high valent metal ions ( e.g. , Al 3+ , Cr 3+ , Fe 3+ , Ti 4+ and Zr 4+ ) and carboxylate ligands; (2) MOFs based on low valent metal ions ( e.g. , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Zn 2+ ) and azolate linkers. We envision that the synthetic strategies, including modulated synthesis and post-synthetic modification, can potentially be extended to other more complex systems like metal-phosphonate framework materials. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 22, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
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    The decreasing cost of electricity produced using solar and wind and the need to avoid CO 2 emissions from fossil fuels has heightened interest in hydrogen gas production by water electrolysis. Offshore and coastal hydrogen gas production using seawater and renewable electricity is of particular interest, but it is currently economically infeasible due to the high costs of ion exchange membranes and the need to desalinate seawater in existing electrolyzer designs. A new approach is described here that uses relatively inexpensive commercially available membranes developed for reverse osmosis (RO) to selectively transport favorable ions. In an applied electric field, RO membranes have a substantial capacity for proton and hydroxide transport through the active layer while excluding salt anions and cations. A perchlorate salt was used to provide an inert and contained anolyte, with charge balanced by proton and hydroxide ion flow across the RO membrane. Synthetic seawater (NaCl) was used as the catholyte, where it provided continuous hydrogen gas evolution. The RO membrane resistance was 21.7 ± 3.5 Ω cm 2 in 1 M NaCl and the voltages needed to split water in a model electrolysis cell at current densities of 10–40 mA cm −2 were comparable to those found when using two commonly used, more expensive ion exchange membranes. 
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