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  1. Abstract

    316L stainless steel (316L SS) is a flagship material for structural applications in corrosive environments, having been extensively studied for decades for its favorable balance between mechanical and corrosion properties. More recently, 316L SS has also proven to have excellent printability when parts are produced with additive manufacturing techniques, notably laser powder bed fusion (LPBF). Because of the harsh thermo-mechanical cycles experienced during rapid solidification and cooling, LPBF processing tends to generate unique microstructures. Strong heterogeneities can be found inside grains, including trapped elements, nano-inclusions, and a high density of dislocations that form the so-called cellular structure. Interestingly, LPBF 316L SS not only exhibits better mechanical properties than its conventionally processed counterpart, but it also usually offers much higher resistance to pitting in chloride solutions. Unfortunately, the complexity of the LPBF microstructures, in addition to process-induced defects, such as porosity and surface roughness, have slowed progress toward linking specific microstructural features to corrosion susceptibility and complicated the development of calibrated simulations of pitting phenomena. The first part of this article is dedicated to an in-depth review of the microstructures found in LPBF 316L SS and their potential effects on the corrosion properties, with an emphasis on pitting resistance. Themore »second part offers a perspective of some relevant modeling techniques available to simulate the corrosion of LPBF 316L SS, including current challenges that should be overcome.

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