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  1. Dynamic organization of the cytoskeletal filaments and rod-like proteins in the cell membrane and other biological interfaces occurs in many cellular processes. Previous modeling studies have considered the dynamics of a single rod on fluid planar membranes. We extend these studies to the more physiologically relevant case of a single filament moving in a spherical membrane. Specifically, we use a slender-body formulation to compute the translational and rotational resistance of a single filament of length L moving in a membrane of radius R and 2D viscosity ηm, and surrounded on its interior and exterior with Newtonian fluids of viscosities η− and η+. We first discuss the case where the filament's curvature is at its minimum κ=1/R. We show that the boundedness of spherical geometry gives rise to flow confinement effects that increase in strength with increasing the ratio of filament's length to membrane radius L/R. These confinement flows only result in a mild increase in filament's resistance along its axis, ξ∥, and its rotational resistance, ξΩ. As a result, our predictions of ξ∥ and ξΩ can be quantitatively mapped to the results on a planar membrane. In contrast, we find that the drag in perpendicular direction, ξ⊥, increases superlinearly withmore »the filament's length, when L/R>1 and ultimately ξ⊥→∞ as L/R→π. Next, we consider the effect of the filament's curvature, κ, on its parallel motion, while fixing the membrane's radius. We show that the flow around the filament becomes increasingly more asymmetric with increasing its curvature. These flow asymmetries induce a net torque on the filament, coupling its parallel and rotational dynamics. This coupling becomes stronger with increasing L/R and κ.« less
  2. We study the problem of detecting talking activities in collaborative learning videos. Our approach uses head detection and projections of the log-magnitude of optical flow vectors to reduce the problem to a simple classification of small projection images without the need for training complex, 3-D activity classification systems. The small projection images are then easily classified using a simple majority vote of standard classifiers. For talking detection, our proposed approach is shown to significantly outperform single activity systems. We have an overall accuracy of 59% compared to 42% for Temporal Segment Network (TSN) and 45% for Convolutional 3D (C3D). In addition, our method is able to detect multiple talking instances from multiple speakers, while also detecting the speakers themselves.
  3. We introduce the problem of detecting a group of students from classroom videos. The problem requires the detection of students from different angles and the separation of the group from other groups in long videos (one to one and a half hours). We use multiple image representations to solve the problem. We use FM components to separate each group from background groups, AM-FM components for detecting the back-of-the-head, and YOLO for face detection. We use classroom videos from four different groups to validate our approach. Our use of multiple representations is shown to be significantly more accurate than the use of YOLO alone.
  4. Recent advances in the blockchain research have been made in two important directions. One is refined resilience analysis utilizing game theory to study the consequences of selfish behavior of users (miners), and the other is the extension from a linear (chain) structure to a non-linear (graphical) structure for performance improvements, such as IOTA and Graphcoin. The first question that comes to mind is what improvements that a blockchain system would see by leveraging these new advances. In this paper, we consider three major properties for a blockchain system: α-partial verification, scalability, and finality-duration. We establish a formal framework and prove that no blockchain system can achieve ?-partial verification for any fixed constant ?, high scalability, and low finality-duration simultaneously. We observe that classical blockchain systems like Bitcoin achieves full verification (α=1) and low finality-duration, Ethereum 2.0 Sharding achieves low finality-duration and high scalability. We are interested in whether it is possible to partially satisfy the three properties.
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  6. Abstract The Precision Proton Spectrometer (PPS) of the CMS and TOTEM experiments collected 107.7 fb -1 in proton-proton (pp) collisions at the LHC at 13 TeV (Run 2). This paper describes the key features of the PPS alignment and optics calibrations, the proton reconstruction procedure, as well as the detector efficiency and the performance of the PPS simulation. The reconstruction and simulation are validated using a sample of (semi)exclusive dilepton events. The performance of PPS has proven the feasibility of continuously operating a near-beam proton spectrometer at a high luminosity hadron collider.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  8. Abstract The production of Z bosons associated with jets is measured in $$\text {p}\text {p}$$ pp collisions at $$\sqrt{s}=13\,\text {Te}\hspace{-.08em}\text {V} $$ s = 13 Te V with data recorded with the CMS experiment at the LHC corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.3 $$\,\text {fb}^{-1}$$ fb - 1 . The multiplicity of jets with transverse momentum $$p_{\textrm{T}} > 30\,\text {Ge}\hspace{-.08em}\text {V} $$ p T > 30 Ge V is measured for different regions of the Z boson’s $$p_{\textrm{T}} (\text {Z })$$ p T ( Z ) , from lower than 10 $$\,\text {Ge}\hspace{-.08em}\text {V}$$ Ge V to higher than 100 $$\,\text {Ge}\hspace{-.08em}\text {V}$$ Ge V . The azimuthal correlation $$\varDelta \phi $$ Δ ϕ between the Z boson and the leading jet, as well as the correlations between the two leading jets are measured in three regions of $$p_{\textrm{T}} (\text {Z })$$ p T ( Z ) . The measurements are compared with several predictions at leading and next-to-leading orders, interfaced with parton showers. Predictions based on transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions and corresponding parton showers give a good description of the measurement in the regions where multiple parton interactions and higher jet multiplicities are not important. The effects ofmore »multiple parton interactions are shown to be important to correctly describe the measured spectra in the low $$p_{\textrm{T}} (\text {Z })$$ p T ( Z ) regions.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  9. A bstract A search is performed for exclusive high-mass γγ → WW and γγ → ZZ production in proton-proton collisions using intact forward protons reconstructed in near-beam detectors, with both weak bosons decaying into boosted and merged jets. The analysis is based on a sample of proton-proton collisions collected by the CMS and TOTEM experiments at $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 100 fb − 1 . No excess above the standard model background prediction is observed, and upper limits are set on the pp → pWWp and pp → pZZp cross sections in a fiducial region defined by the diboson invariant mass m (VV) > 1 TeV (with V = W , Z) and proton fractional momentum loss 0 . 04 < ξ < 0 . 20. The results are interpreted as new limits on dimension-6 and dimension-8 anomalous quartic gauge couplings.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024