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  1. Dynamic organization of the cytoskeletal filaments and rod-like proteins in the cell membrane and other biological interfaces occurs in many cellular processes. Previous modeling studies have considered the dynamics of a single rod on fluid planar membranes. We extend these studies to the more physiologically relevant case of a single filament moving in a spherical membrane. Specifically, we use a slender-body formulation to compute the translational and rotational resistance of a single filament of length L moving in a membrane of radius R and 2D viscosity ηm, and surrounded on its interior and exterior with Newtonian fluids of viscosities η−more »and η+. We first discuss the case where the filament's curvature is at its minimum κ=1/R. We show that the boundedness of spherical geometry gives rise to flow confinement effects that increase in strength with increasing the ratio of filament's length to membrane radius L/R. These confinement flows only result in a mild increase in filament's resistance along its axis, ξ∥, and its rotational resistance, ξΩ. As a result, our predictions of ξ∥ and ξΩ can be quantitatively mapped to the results on a planar membrane. In contrast, we find that the drag in perpendicular direction, ξ⊥, increases superlinearly with the filament's length, when L/R>1 and ultimately ξ⊥→∞ as L/R→π. Next, we consider the effect of the filament's curvature, κ, on its parallel motion, while fixing the membrane's radius. We show that the flow around the filament becomes increasingly more asymmetric with increasing its curvature. These flow asymmetries induce a net torque on the filament, coupling its parallel and rotational dynamics. This coupling becomes stronger with increasing L/R and κ.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  2. We study the problem of detecting talking activities in collaborative learning videos. Our approach uses head detection and projections of the log-magnitude of optical flow vectors to reduce the problem to a simple classification of small projection images without the need for training complex, 3-D activity classification systems. The small projection images are then easily classified using a simple majority vote of standard classifiers. For talking detection, our proposed approach is shown to significantly outperform single activity systems. We have an overall accuracy of 59% compared to 42% for Temporal Segment Network (TSN) and 45% for Convolutional 3D (C3D). Inmore »addition, our method is able to detect multiple talking instances from multiple speakers, while also detecting the speakers themselves.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 31, 2022
  3. Mechanical properties of cellular structures, including the cell cytoskeleton, are increasingly used as biomarkers for disease diagnosis and fundamental studies in cell biology. Recent experiments suggest that the cell cytoskeleton and its permeating cytosol, can be described as a poroelastic (PE) material. Biot theory is the standard model used to describe PE materials. Yet, this theory does not account for the fluid viscous stress, which can lead to inaccurate predictions of the mechanics in the dilute filamentous network of the cytoskeleton. Here, we adopt a two-phase model that extends Biot theory by including the fluid viscous stresses in the fluid'smore »momentum equation. We use generalized linear viscoelastic (VE) constitutive equations to describe the permeating fluid and the network stresses and assume a constant friction coefficient that couples the fluid and network displacement fields. As the first step in developing a computational framework for solving the resulting equations, we derive closed-form general solutions of the fluid and network displacement fields in spherical coordinates. To demonstrate the applicability of our results, we study the motion of a rigid sphere moving under a constant force inside a PE medium, composed of a linear elastic network and a Newtonian fluid. We find that the network compressibility introduces a slow relaxation of the sphere and a non-monotonic network displacements with time along the direction of the applied force. These novel features cannot be predicted if VE constitutive equation is used for the medium. We show that our results can be applied to particle-tracking microrheology to differentiate between PE and VE materials and to independently measure the permeability and VE properties of the fluid and the network phases.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  4. We introduce the problem of detecting a group of students from classroom videos. The problem requires the detection of students from different angles and the separation of the group from other groups in long videos (one to one and a half hours). We use multiple image representations to solve the problem. We use FM components to separate each group from background groups, AM-FM components for detecting the back-of-the-head, and YOLO for face detection. We use classroom videos from four different groups to validate our approach. Our use of multiple representations is shown to be significantly more accurate than the usemore »of YOLO alone.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  5. Recent advances in the blockchain research have been made in two important directions. One is refined resilience analysis utilizing game theory to study the consequences of selfish behavior of users (miners), and the other is the extension from a linear (chain) structure to a non-linear (graphical) structure for performance improvements, such as IOTA and Graphcoin. The first question that comes to mind is what improvements that a blockchain system would see by leveraging these new advances. In this paper, we consider three major properties for a blockchain system: α-partial verification, scalability, and finality-duration. We establish a formal framework and provemore »that no blockchain system can achieve ?-partial verification for any fixed constant ?, high scalability, and low finality-duration simultaneously. We observe that classical blockchain systems like Bitcoin achieves full verification (α=1) and low finality-duration, Ethereum 2.0 Sharding achieves low finality-duration and high scalability. We are interested in whether it is possible to partially satisfy the three properties.« less
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  8. A bstract A search is presented for new particles produced at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 13 TeV, using events with energetic jets and large missing transverse momentum. The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 101 fb − 1 , collected in 2017–2018 with the CMS detector. Machine learning techniques are used to define separate categories for events with narrow jets from initial-state radiation and events with large-radius jets consistent with a hadronic decay of a W or Z boson. A statistical combination is made with anmore »earlier search based on a data sample of 36 fb − 1 , collected in 2016. No significant excess of events is observed with respect to the standard model background expectation determined from control samples in data. The results are interpreted in terms of limits on the branching fraction of an invisible decay of the Higgs boson, as well as constraints on simplified models of dark matter, on first-generation scalar leptoquarks decaying to quarks and neutrinos, and on models with large extra dimensions. Several of the new limits, specifically for spin-1 dark matter mediators, pseudoscalar mediators, colored mediators, and leptoquarks, are the most restrictive to date.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022