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  1. A magnetocaloric effect (MCE) with sizable isothermal entropy change (ΔS) maintained over a broad range of temperatures above the blocking temperature is reported for a rare earth-free superparamagnetic nanoparticle system comprising of Fe–TiN heterostructure. Superparamagnetic iron (Fe) particles were embedded in a titanium nitride (TiN) thin film matrix in a TiN/Fe/TiN multilayered pattern using a pulsed laser deposition method. High angle annular dark-field images in conjunction with dispersive energy analysis, recorded using scanning transmission electron microscopy, show a clear presence of alternating layers of Fe and TiN with a distinct atomic number contrast between Fe particles and TiN. Quantitative information about the isothermal entropy change (ΔS) and the magnetocaloric effect in the multilayer Fe–TiN system has been obtained by applying Maxwell relation to the magnetization vs temperature data at various fields. With the absence of a dynamic magnetic hysteresis above the blocking temperature, the negative ΔS as high as 4.18 × 10 3  J/Km 3 (normal or forward MCE) is obtained at 3 T at 300 K.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 21, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  3. Abstract

    Flexible nanocomposite films, with cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (CFN) as the ferromagnetic component and polyvinylidene fluoride–trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) copolymer as the ferroelectric matrix, were fabricated using a blade coating technique. Nanocomposite films were prepared using a two-step process; the first process involves the synthesis of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles using a sonochemical method, and then incorporation of various weight percentages (0, 2.5, 5, and 10%) of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles into the PVDF-TrFE to form nanocomposites. The ferroelectric polarβphase of PVDF-TrFE was confirmed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Thermal studies of films showed notable improvement in the thermal properties of the nanocomposite films with the incorporation of nanoparticles. The ferroelectric properties of the pure polymer/composite films were studied, showing a significant improvement of maximum polarization upon 5wt% CFN loading in PVDF-TrFE composite films compared to the PVDF-TrFE film. The magnetic properties of as-synthesized CFN and the polymer nanocomposites were studied, showing a magnetic saturation of 53.7 emu g−1at room temperature, while 10% cobalt ferrite-(PVDF-TrFE) nanocomposite shows 27.6 emu/g. We also describe a process for fabricating high optical quality pure PVDF-TrFE and pinhole-free nanocomposite films. Finally, the mechanical studies revealed that the mechanical strength of the films increases up to 5 wt% loading ofmore »the nanoparticles in the copolymer matrix and then decreases. This signifies that the obtained films could be suited for flexible electronics.

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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023