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  1. Abstract The accurate simulation of additional interactions at the ATLAS experiment for the analysis of proton–proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider presents a significant challenge to the computing resources. During the LHC Run 2 (2015–2018), there were up to 70 inelastic interactions per bunch crossing, which need to be accounted for in Monte Carlo (MC) production. In this document, a new method to account for these additional interactions in the simulation chain is described. Instead of sampling the inelastic interactions and adding their energy deposits to a hard-scatter interaction one-by-one, the inelastic interactions are presampled, independent of the hard scatter, and stored as combined events. Consequently, for each hard-scatter interaction, only one such presampled event needs to be added as part of the simulation chain. For the Run 2 simulation chain, with an average of 35 interactions per bunch crossing, this new method provides a substantial reduction in MC production CPU needs of around 20%, while reproducing the properties of the reconstructed quantities relevant for physics analyses with good accuracy.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. Abstract During LHC Run 2 (2015–2018) the ATLAS Level-1 topological trigger allowed efficient data-taking by the ATLAS experiment at luminosities up to 2.1 $$\times $$ × 10 $$^{34}$$ 34  cm $$^{-2}$$ - 2 s $$^{-1}$$ - 1 , which exceeds the design value by a factor of two. The system was installed in 2016 and operated in 2017 and 2018. It uses Field Programmable Gate Array processors to select interesting events by placing kinematic and angular requirements on electromagnetic clusters, jets, $$\tau $$ τ -leptons, muons and the missing transverse energy. It allowed to significantly improve the background event rejection and signal event acceptance, in particular for Higgs and B -physics processes.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  3. A bstract The fragmentation properties of jets containing b -hadrons are studied using charged B mesons in 139 fb − 1 of pp collisions at $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 13 TeV, recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC during the period from 2015 to 2018. The B mesons are reconstructed using the decay of B ± into J/ψK ± , with the J/ψ decaying into a pair of muons. Jets are reconstructed using the anti- k t algorithm with radius parameter R = 0 . 4. The measurement determines the longitudinal and transverse momentum profiles of the reconstructed B hadrons with respect to the axes of the jets to which they are geometrically associated. These distributions are measured in intervals of the jet transverse momentum, ranging from 50 GeV to above 100 GeV. The results are corrected for detector effects and compared with several Monte Carlo predictions using different parton shower and hadronisation models. The results for the longitudinal and transverse profiles provide useful inputs to improve the description of heavy-flavour fragmentation in jets.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  4. Abstract Several improvements to the ATLAS triggers used to identify jets containing b -hadrons ( b -jets) were implemented for data-taking during Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider from 2016 to 2018. These changes include reconfiguring the b -jet trigger software to improve primary-vertex finding and allow more stable running in conditions with high pile-up, and the implementation of the functionality needed to run sophisticated taggers used by the offline reconstruction in an online environment. These improvements yielded an order of magnitude better light-flavour jet rejection for the same b -jet identification efficiency compared to the performance in Run 1 (2011–2012). The efficiency to identify b -jets in the trigger, and the conditional efficiency for b -jets that satisfy offline b -tagging requirements to pass the trigger are also measured. Correction factors are derived to calibrate the b -tagging efficiency in simulation to match that observed in data. The associated systematic uncertainties are substantially smaller than in previous measurements. In addition, b -jet triggers were operated for the first time during heavy-ion data-taking, using dedicated triggers that were developed to identify semileptonic b -hadron decays by selecting events with geometrically overlapping muons and jets.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  6. Abstract A search for chargino–neutralino pair production in three-lepton final states with missing transverse momentum is presented. The study is based on a dataset of $$\sqrt{s} = 13$$ s = 13  TeV pp collisions recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139  $$\hbox {fb}^{-1}$$ fb - 1 . No significant excess relative to the Standard Model predictions is found in data. The results are interpreted in simplified models of supersymmetry, and statistically combined with results from a previous ATLAS search for compressed spectra in two-lepton final states. Various scenarios for the production and decay of charginos ( $${\tilde{\chi }}^\pm _1$$ χ ~ 1 ± ) and neutralinos ( $${\tilde{\chi }}^0_2$$ χ ~ 2 0 ) are considered. For pure higgsino $${\tilde{\chi }}^\pm _1{\tilde{\chi }}^0_2$$ χ ~ 1 ± χ ~ 2 0 pair-production scenarios, exclusion limits at 95% confidence level are set on $${\tilde{\chi }}^0_2$$ χ ~ 2 0 masses up to 210 GeV. Limits are also set for pure wino $${\tilde{\chi }}^\pm _1{\tilde{\chi }}^0_2$$ χ ~ 1 ± χ ~ 2 0 pair production, on $${\tilde{\chi }}^0_2$$ χ ~ 2 0 masses up to 640 GeV for decays via on-shell W and Z bosons, upmore »to 300 GeV for decays via off-shell W and Z bosons, and up to 190 GeV for decays via W and Standard Model Higgs bosons.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  8. A bstract The production of dark matter in association with Higgs bosons is predicted in several extensions of the Standard Model. An exploration of such scenarios is presented, considering final states with missing transverse momentum and b -tagged jets consistent with a Higgs boson. The analysis uses proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC during Run 2, amounting to an integrated luminosity of 139 fb − 1 . The analysis, when compared with previous searches, benefits from a larger dataset, but also has further improvements providing sensitivity to a wider spectrum of signal scenarios. These improvements include both an optimised event selection and advances in the object identification, such as the use of the likelihood-based significance of the missing transverse momentum and variable-radius track-jets. No significant deviation from Standard Model expectations is observed. Limits are set, at 95% confidence level, in two benchmark models with two Higgs doublets extended by either a heavy vector boson Z ′ or a pseudoscalar singlet a and which both provide a dark matter candidate χ . In the case of the two-Higgs-doublet model with an additional vector boson Z ′, the observed limitsmore »extend up to a Z ′ mass of 3 TeV for a mass of 100 GeV for the dark matter candidate. The two-Higgs-doublet model with a dark matter particle mass of 10 GeV and an additional pseudoscalar a is excluded for masses of the a up to 520 GeV and 240 GeV for tan β = 1 and tan β = 10 respectively. Limits on the visible cross-sections are set and range from to 0.05 fb to 3.26 fb, depending on the missing transverse momentum and b -quark jet multiplicity requirements.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  9. A correction to this paper has been published: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-021-09344-w
  10. A bstract A search for dark-matter particles in events with large missing transverse momentum and a Higgs boson candidate decaying into two photons is reported. The search uses 139 fb − 1 of proton-proton collision data collected at $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the CERN LHC between 2015 and 2018. No significant excess of events over the Standard Model predictions is observed. The results are interpreted by extracting limits on three simplified models that include either vector or pseudoscalar mediators and predict a final state with a pair of dark-matter candidates and a Higgs boson decaying into two photons.