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  1. Abstract

    Although many substorm‐related observations have been made, we still have limited insight into propagation of the plasma and field perturbations in Pi2 frequencies (∼7–25 mHz) in association with substorm aurora, particularly from the auroral source region in the inner magnetosphere to the ground. In this study, we present conjugate observations of a substorm brightening aurora using an all‐sky camera and an inner‐magnetospheric satellite Arase atL ∼ 5. A camera at Gakona (62.39°N, 214.78°E), Alaska, observed a substorm auroral brightening on 28 December 2018, and the footprint of the satellite was located just equatorward of the aurora. Around the timing of the auroral brightening, the satellite observed a series of quasi‐periodic variations in the electric and magnetic fields and in the energy flux of electrons and ions. We demonstrate that the diamagnetic variations of thermal pressure and medium‐energy ion energy flux in the inner magnetosphere show approximately one‐to‐one correspondence with the oscillations in luminosity of the substorm brightening aurora and high‐latitudinal Pi2 pulsations on the ground. We also found their anti‐correlation with low‐energy electrons. Cavity‐type Pi2 pulsations were observed at mid‐ and low‐latitudinal stations. Based on these observations, we suggest that a wave phenomenon in the substorm auroral source region, like ballooning type instability, play an important role in the development of substorm and related auroral brightening and high‐latitude Pi2, and that the variation of the auroral luminosity was directly driven by keV electrons which were modulated by Alfven waves in the inner magnetosphere.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    A specialized ground‐based system has been developed for simultaneous observations of pulsating aurora (PsA) and related magnetospheric phenomena with the Arase satellite. The instrument suite is composed of (a) six 100 Hz sampling high‐speed all‐sky imagers (ASIs), (b) two 10 Hz sampling monochromatic ASIs observing 427.8 and 844.6 nm auroral emissions, (c) a 20 Hz sampling fluxgate magnetometer. The 100 Hz ASIs were deployed in four stations in Scandinavia and two stations in Alaska, which have been used for capturing the main pulsations and quasi 3 Hz internal modulations of PsA at the same time. The 10 Hz sampling monochromatic ASIs have been operative in Tromsø, Norway with the 20 Hz sampling magnetometer. Combination of these multiple instruments with the European Incoherent SCATter (EISCAT) radar enables us to detect the low‐altitude ionization due to energetic electron precipitation during PsA and further to reveal the ionospheric electrodynamics behind PsA. Since the launch of the Arase satellite, the data from these instruments have been examined in comparison with the wave and particle data from the satellite in the magnetosphere. In the future, the system can be utilized not only for studies of PsA but also for other classes of aurora in close collaboration with the planned EISCAT_3D project.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Resonant interactions of energetic electrons with electromagnetic whistler‐mode waves (whistlers) contribute significantly to the dynamics of electron fluxes in Earth's outer radiation belt. At low geomagnetic latitudes, these waves are very effective in pitch angle scattering and precipitation into the ionosphere of low equatorial pitch angle, tens of keV electrons and acceleration of high equatorial pitch angle electrons to relativistic energies. Relativistic (hundreds of keV), electrons may also be precipitated by resonant interaction with whistlers, but this requires waves propagating quasi‐parallel without significant intensity decrease to high latitudes where they can resonate with higher energy low equatorial pitch angle electrons than at the equator. Wave propagation away from the equatorial source region in a non‐uniform magnetic field leads to ray divergence from the originally field‐aligned direction and efficient wave damping by Landau resonance with suprathermal electrons, reducing the wave ability to scatter electrons at high latitudes. However, wave propagation can become ducted along field‐aligned density peaks (ducts), preventing ray divergence and wave damping. Such ducting may therefore result in significant relativistic electron precipitation. We present evidence that ducted whistlers efficiently precipitate relativistic electrons. We employ simultaneous near‐equatorial and ground‐based measurements of whistlers and low‐altitude electron precipitation measurements by ELFIN CubeSat. We show that ducted waves (appearing on the ground) efficiently scatter relativistic electrons into the loss cone, contrary to non‐ducted waves (absent on the ground) precipitating onlykeV electrons. Our results indicate that ducted whistlers may be quite significant for relativistic electron losses; they should be further studied statistically and possibly incorporated in radiation belt models.

     
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  4. Abstract

    Simultaneous eastward and westward traveling surges were observed at Tjörnes, Iceland, and Syowa station, Antarctica, respectively. Several remarkable differences were identified. (1) The position of the initial bright spot was shifted by 1.7 to 2.3 MLT between both hemispheres. (2) The surges differ in traveling speed between the eastward traveling surge (6.5 km s−1) and the westward traveling surge (1.3 km s−1). (3) The Arase satellite was located on a geomagnetic field line connecting both ground stations and observed a significant excess in westward component of the magnetic field, which is consistent with the large shifts of the initial bright spots in both hemispheres. (4) The background Hall current flows eastward (Northern Hemisphere) and westward (Southern Hemisphere). The observed north‐south asymmetry of the traveling surges suggests that the ionosphere can play an essential role in controlling the fundamental spatiotemporal development of auroras in both hemispheres.

     
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  5. Abstract

    Auroral arcs and diffuse auroras are common phenomena at high latitudes, though characteristics of their source plasma and fields have not been well understood. We report the first observation of fields and particles including their pitch‐angle distributions in the source region of auroral arcs and diffuse auroras, using data from the Arase satellite atL ~ 6.0–6.5. The auroral arcs appeared and expanded both poleward and equatorward at local midnight from ~0308 UT on 11 September 2018 at Nain (magnetic latitude: 66°), Canada, during the expansion phase of a substorm, while diffuse auroras covered the whole sky after 0348 UT. The top part of auroral arcs was characterized by purple/blue emissions. Bidirectional field‐aligned electrons with structured energy‐time spectra were observed in the source region of auroral arcs, while source electrons became isotropic and less structured in the diffuse auroral region afterwards. We suggest that structured bidirectional electrons at energies below a few keV were caused by upward field‐aligned potential differences (upward electric field along geomagnetic field) reaching high altitudes (~30,000 km) above Arase. The bidirectional electrons above a few keV were probably caused by Fermi acceleration associated with the observed field dipolarization. Strong electric‐field fluctuations and earthward Poynting flux were observed at the arc crossing and are probably also caused by the field dipolarization. The ions showed time‐pitch‐angle dispersion caused by mirror reflection. These results indicate a clear contrast between auroral arcs and diffuse auroras in terms of source plasma and fields and generation mechanisms of auroral arcs in the inner magnetosphere.

     
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  6. Abstract

    We report the electron flux modulations without corresponding magnetic fluctuations from unique multipoint satellite observations of the Arase (Exploration of Energization and Radiation in Geospace) and the Van Allen Probe (Radiation Belt Storm Probe [RBSP])‐B satellites. On 30 March 2017, both Arase and RBSP‐B observed periodic fluctuations in the relativistic electron flux with energies ranging from 500 keV to 2 MeV when they were located near the magnetic equator in the morning and dusk local time sectors, respectively. Arase did not observe Pc5 pulsations, while they were observed by RBSP‐B. The clear dispersion signature of the relativistic electron fluctuations observed by Arase indicates that the source region is limited to the postnoon to the dusk sector. This is confirmed by RBSP‐B and ground‐magnetometer observations, where Pc5 pulsations are observed to drift‐resonate with relativistic electrons on the duskside. Thus, Arase observed the drift‐resonance signatures “remotely,” whereas RBSP‐B observed them “locally.”

     
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