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  1. In this paper, we consider transmission scheduling in a status update system, where updates are generated periodically and transmitted over a Gilbert-Elliott fading channel. The goal is to minimize the long-run average age of information (AoI) under a long-run average energy constraint. We consider two practical cases to obtain channel state information (CSI): (i) without channel sensing and (ii) with delayed channel sensing. For (i), CSI is revealed by the feedback (ACK/NACK) of a transmission, but when no transmission occurs, CSI is not revealed. Thus, we have to balance tradeoffs across energy, AoI, channel exploration, and channel exploitation. The problem is formulated as a constrained partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). We show that the optimal policy is a randomized mixture of no more than two stationary deterministic policies each of which is of a threshold-type in the belief on the channel. For (ii), (delayed) CSI is available via channel sensing. Then, the tradeoff is only between the AoI and energy. The problem is formulated as a constrained MDP. The optimal policy is shown to have a similar structure as in (i) but with an AoI associated threshold. With these, we develop an optimal structure-aware algorithm for each case. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 16, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
  4. null (Ed.)
    In this paper, we consider a status update system, in which update packets are sent to the destination via a wireless medium that allows for multiple rates, where a higher rate also naturally corresponds to a higher error probability. The data freshness is measured using age of information, which is defined as the age of the recent update at the destination. A packet that is transmitted with a higher rate, will encounter a shorter delay and a higher error probability. Thus, the choice of the transmission rate affects the age at the destination. In this paper, we design a low-complexity scheduler that selects between two different transmission rate and error probability pairs to be used at each transmission epoch. This problem can be cast as a Markov Decision Process. We show that there exists a threshold-type policy that is age-optimal. More importantly, we show that the objective function is quasi-convex or non-decreasing in the threshold, based on the system parameters values. This enables us to devise a low-complexity algorithm to minimize the age. These results reveal an interesting phenomenon: While choosing the rate with minimum mean delay is delay-optimal, this does not necessarily minimize the age. 
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  5. null (Ed.)