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    We analysed the nuclear region of all 56 early-type galaxies from the DIVING3D Project, which is a statistically complete sample of objects that contains all 170 galaxies in the Southern Hemisphere with B < 12.0 mag and galactic latitude |b| < 15°. Observations were performed with the Integral Field Unit of the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph. Emission lines were detected in the nucleus of 86 ± 5 per cent of the objects. Diagnostic diagrams were used to classify 52 ± 7 per cent of the objects as LINERs or Seyferts, while the other 34 ± 6 per cent galaxies without H β or [O iii] lines in their spectra were classified as weak emission line objects. Transition Objects are not seen in the sample, possibly because the seeing-limited data cubes of the objects allow one to isolate the nuclei of the galaxies from their circumnuclear regions, avoiding contamination from H ii regions. A broad line region is seen in 29 ± 6 per cent of the galaxies. Of the 48 galaxies with emission-line nuclei, 41 have signs of AGNs. Some objects also have indications of shocks in their nuclei. Lenticular galaxies are more likely to have emission lines than ellipticals. Also, more luminous objects have higher [N ii]/H α ratios, which may be associated with the mass-metalicity relation of galaxies. A direct comparison of our results with the Palomar Survey indicates that the detection rates of emission lines and also of type 1 AGNs are higher in the DIVING3D objects. This is a consequence of using a more modern instrument with a better spatial resolution than the Palomar Survey observations.

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  2. Collaborative learning can improve student learning, student persistence, and the classroom climate. While work has documented the tradeoffs of face-to-face collaboration and asynchronous, online learning, the trade-offs between asynchronous (student-scheduled) and synchronous (instructor-scheduled) collaborative and online learning have not been explored. Structured roles can maximize the effectiveness of collaborative learning by helping all students participate, but structured roles have not been studied in online settings. We performed a quasi-experimental study in two courses—Computer Architecture and Numerical Methods—to compare the effects of asynchronous collaborative learning without structured roles to synchronous collaborative learning with structured roles. We use a data-analytics approach to examine how these approaches affected the student learning experience during formative collaborative learning assessments. Teams in the synchronous offering made higher scoring submissions (5-10% points better on average), finished assessments more efficiently (11-16 minutes faster on average), and had greater equality in the total number of submissions each student made (for example, significant increase of 13% in the mean equality score among all groups). 
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  3. Abstract

    Xenon dual-phase time projections chambers (TPCs) have proven to be a successful technology in studying physical phenomena that require low-background conditions. With$$40\,\textrm{t}$$40tof liquid xenon (LXe) in the TPC baseline design, DARWIN will have a high sensitivity for the detection of particle dark matter, neutrinoless double beta decay ($$0\upnu \upbeta \upbeta $$0νββ), and axion-like particles (ALPs). Although cosmic muons are a source of background that cannot be entirely eliminated, they may be greatly diminished by placing the detector deep underground. In this study, we used Monte Carlo simulations to model the cosmogenic background expected for the DARWIN observatory at four underground laboratories: Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM) and SNOLAB. We present here the results of simulations performed to determine the production rate of$${}^{137}$$137Xe, the most crucial isotope in the search for$$0\upnu \upbeta \upbeta $$0νββof$${}^{136}$$136Xe. Additionally, we explore the contribution that other muon-induced spallation products, such as other unstable xenon isotopes and tritium, may have on the cosmogenic background.

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  4. Abstract

    IceCube alert events are neutrinos with a moderate-to-high probability of having astrophysical origin. In this study, we analyze 11 yr of IceCube data and investigate 122 alert events and a selection of high-energy tracks detected between 2009 and the end of 2021. This high-energy event selection (alert events + high-energy tracks) has an average probability of ≥0.5 of being of astrophysical origin. We search for additional continuous and transient neutrino emission within the high-energy events’ error regions. We find no evidence for significant continuous neutrino emission from any of the alert event directions. The only locally significant neutrino emission is the transient emission associated with the blazar TXS 0506+056, with a local significance of 3σ, which confirms previous IceCube studies. When correcting for 122 test positions, the globalp-value is 0.156 and compatible with the background hypothesis. We constrain the total continuous flux emitted from all 122 test positions at 100 TeV to be below 1.2 × 10−15(TeV cm2s)−1at 90% confidence assuming anE−2spectrum. This corresponds to 4.5% of IceCube’s astrophysical diffuse flux. Overall, we find no indication that alert events in general are linked to lower-energetic continuous or transient neutrino emission.

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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  6. Abstract The XENONnT detector uses the latest and largest liquid xenon-based time projection chamber (TPC) operated by the XENON Collaboration, aimed at detecting Weakly Interacting Massive Particles and conducting other rare event searches.The XENONnT data acquisition (DAQ) system constitutes an upgraded and expanded version of the XENON1T DAQ system.For its operation, it relies predominantly on commercially available hardware accompanied by open-source and custom-developed software.The three constituent subsystems of the XENONnT detector, the TPC (main detector), muon veto, and the newly introduced neutron veto, are integrated into a single DAQ, and can be operated both independently and as a unified system.In total, the DAQ digitizes the signals of 698 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), of which 253 from the top PMT array of the TPC are digitized twice, at ×10 and ×0.5 gain.The DAQ for the most part is a triggerless system, reading out and storing every signal that exceeds the digitization thresholds.Custom-developed software is used to process the acquired data, making it available within ∼30 s for live data quality monitoring and online analyses.The entire system with all the three subsystems was successfully commissioned and has been operating continuously, comfortably withstanding readout rates that exceed ∼500 MB/s during calibration.Livetime during normal operation exceeds 99% and is ∼90% during most high-rate calibrations.The combined DAQ system has collected more than 2 PB of both calibration and science data during the commissioning of XENONnT and the first science run. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  8. Abstract A low-energy electronic recoil calibration of XENON1T, a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber, with an internal $${}^{37}$$ 37 Ar source was performed. This calibration source features a 35-day half-life and provides two mono-energetic lines at 2.82 keV and 0.27 keV. The photon yield and electron yield at 2.82 keV are measured to be ( $$32.3\,\pm \,0.3$$ 32.3 ± 0.3 ) photons/keV and ( $$40.6\,\pm \,0.5$$ 40.6 ± 0.5 ) electrons/keV, respectively, in agreement with other measurements and with NEST predictions. The electron yield at 0.27 keV is also measured and it is ( $$68.0^{+6.3}_{-3.7}$$ 68 . 0 - 3.7 + 6.3 ) electrons/keV. The $${}^{37}$$ 37 Ar calibration confirms that the detector is well-understood in the energy region close to the detection threshold, with the 2.82 keV line reconstructed at ( $$2.83\,\pm \,0.02$$ 2.83 ± 0.02 ) keV, which further validates the model used to interpret the low-energy electronic recoil excess previously reported by XENON1T. The ability to efficiently remove argon with cryogenic distillation after the calibration proves that $${}^{37}$$ 37 Ar can be considered as a regular calibration source for multi-tonne xenon detectors. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024