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  1. Abstract

    We present a sample of nine fast radio bursts (FRBs) from which we derive magnetic field strengths of the host galaxies represented by normal,z< 0.5 star-forming galaxies with stellar massesM*≈ 108–1010.5M. We find no correlation between the FRB rotation measure (RM) and redshift, which indicates that the RM values are due mostly to the FRB host contribution. This assertion is further supported by a significant positive correlation (Spearman test probabilityPS< 0.05) found between the RM and the estimated host dispersion measure (DMhost; with Spearman rank correlation coefficientrS= +0.75). For these nine galaxies, we estimate their magnetic field strengths projected along the sight line ∣B∣, finding a low median value of 0.5μG. This implies the magnetic fields of our sample of hosts are weaker than those characteristic of the solar neighborhood (≈6μG), but relatively consistent with a lower limit on the observed range of ≈2–10μG for star-forming disk galaxies, especially as we consider reversals in theB-field, and that we are only probing B. We compare to RMs from simulated galaxies of the Auriga project—magneto-hydrodynamic cosmological zoom simulations—and find that the simulations predict the observed values to within a 95% confidence interval. Upcoming FRB surveys will provide hundreds of new FRBs with high-precision localizations, RMs, and imaging follow-up to support further investigation into the magnetic fields of a diverse population ofz< 1 galaxies.

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  2. Abstract

    The repeating fast radio burst FRB 20190520B is an anomaly of the FRB population thanks to its high dispersion measure (DM = 1205 pc cm−3) despite its low redshift ofzfrb= 0.241. This excess has been attributed to a large host contribution of DMhost≈ 900 pc cm−3, far larger than any other known FRB. In this paper, we describe spectroscopic observations of the FRB 20190520B field obtained as part of the FLIMFLAM survey, which yielded 701 galaxy redshifts in the field. We find multiple foreground galaxy groups and clusters, for which we then estimated halo masses by comparing their richness with numerical simulations. We discover two separateMhalo> 1014Mgalaxy clusters atz= 0.1867 and 0.2170 that are directly intersected by the FRB sight line within their characteristic halo radiusr200. Subtracting off their estimated DM contributions, as well that of the diffuse intergalactic medium, we estimate a host contribution ofDMhost=430220+140or280170+140pccm3(observed frame), depending on whether we assume that the halo gas extends tor200or 2 ×r200. This significantly smaller DMhost—no longer the largest known value—is now consistent with Hαemission measures of the host galaxy without invoking unusually high gas temperatures. Combined with the observed FRB scattering timescale, we estimate the turbulent fluctuation and geometric amplification factor of the scattering layer to beF˜G4.511(pc2km)1/3, suggesting that most of the gas is close to the FRB host. This result illustrates the importance of incorporating foreground data for FRB analyses both for understanding the nature of FRBs and to realize their potential as a cosmological probe.

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  3. Abstract

    The FLIMFLAM survey is collecting spectroscopic data of field galaxies near fast radio burst (FRB) sight lines to constrain key parameters describing the distribution of matter in the Universe. In this work, we leverage the survey data to determine the source of the excess extragalactic dispersion measure (DM), compared to Macquart relation estimates of four FRBs: FRB20190714A, FRB20200906A, FRB20200430A, and FRB20210117A. By modeling the gas distribution around the foreground galaxy halos and galaxy groups of the sight lines, we estimate DMhalos, their contribution to the FRB DMs. The FRB20190714A sight line shows a clear excess of foreground halos which contribute roughly two-thirds of the observed excess DM, thus implying a sight line that is baryon dense. FRB20200906A shows a smaller but nonnegligible foreground halo contribution, and further analysis of the intergalactic medium is necessary to ascertain the true cosmic contribution to its DM. FRB20200430A and FRB20210117A show negligible foreground contributions, implying a large host galaxy excess and/or progenitor environment excess.

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  4. Abstract

    We present high-resolution 1.5–6 GHz Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical and infrared observations of the extremely active repeating fast radio burst (FRB) FRB 20201124A and its barred spiral host galaxy. We constrain the location and morphology of star formation in the host and search for a persistent radio source (PRS) coincident with FRB 20201124A. We resolve the morphology of the radio emission across all frequency bands and measure a star formation rate (SFR) ≈ 8.9Myr−1, approximately ≈2.5–6 times larger than optically inferred SFRs, demonstrating dust-obscured star formation throughout the host. Compared to a sample of all known FRB hosts with radio emission, the host of FRB 20201124A has the most significantly obscured star formation. While HST observations show the FRB to be offset from the bar or spiral arms, the radio emission extends to the FRB location. We propose that the FRB progenitor could have formed in situ (e.g., a magnetar born from a massive star explosion). It is still plausible, although less likely, that the progenitor of FRB 20201124A migrated from the central bar of the host. We further place a limit on the luminosity of a putative PRS at the FRB position ofL6.0GHz≲ 1.8 ×1027erg s−1Hz−1, among the deepest PRS luminosity limits to date. However, this limit is still broadly consistent with both magnetar nebulae and hypernebulae models assuming a constant energy injection rate of the magnetar and an age of ≳105yr in each model, respectively.

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  5. Abstract

    We present the discovery of an as yet nonrepeating fast radio burst (FRB), FRB 20210117A, with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP), as a part of the Commensal Real-time ASKAP Fast Transients Survey. The subarcsecond localization of the burst led to the identification of its host galaxy atz= 0.214(1). This redshift is much lower than what would be expected for a source dispersion measure (DM) of 729 pc cm−3, given typical contributions from the intergalactic medium and the host galaxy. Optical observations reveal the host to be a dwarf galaxy with little ongoing star formation—very different to the dwarf host galaxies of the known repeating FRBs 20121102A and 20190520B. We find an excess DM contribution from the host and attribute it to the FRB’s local environment. We do not find any radio emission from the FRB site or host galaxy. The low magnetized environment and the lack of a persistent radio source indicate that the FRB source is older than those found in other dwarf host galaxies, establishing the diversity of FRB sources in dwarf galaxy environments. We find our observations to be fully consistent with the “hypernebula” model, where the FRB is powered by an accretion jet from a hyperaccreting black hole. Finally, our high time resolution analysis reveals burst characteristics similar to those seen in repeating FRBs. We encourage follow-up observations of FRB 20210117A to establish any repeating nature.

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  6. Abstract We are conducting a survey using twilight time on the Dark Energy Camera with the Blanco 4 m telescope in Chile to look for objects interior to Earth’s and Venus’ orbits. To date we have discovered two rare Atira/Apohele asteroids, 2021 LJ4 and 2021 PH27, which have orbits completely interior to Earth’s orbit. We also discovered one new Apollo-type Near Earth Object (NEO) that crosses Earth’s orbit, 2022 AP7. Two of the discoveries have diameters ≳1 km. 2022 AP7 is likely the largest Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) discovered in about eight years. To date we have covered 624 square degrees of sky near to and interior to the orbit of Venus. The average images go to 21.3 mag in the r band, with the best images near 22nd mag. Our new discovery 2021 PH27 has the smallest semimajor axis known for an asteroid, 0.4617 au, and the largest general relativistic effects (53 arcsec/century) known for any body in the solar system. The survey has detected ∼15% of all known Atira NEOs. We put strong constraints on any stable population of Venus co-orbital resonance objects existing, as well as the Atira and Vatira asteroid classes. These interior asteroid populations are important to complete the census of asteroids near Earth, including some of the most likely Earth impactors that cannot easily be discovered in other surveys. Comparing the actual population of asteroids found interior to Earth and Venus with those predicted to exist by extrapolating from the known population exterior to Earth is important to better understand the origin, composition, and structure of the NEO population. 
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  7. Abstract

    We present a comprehensive catalog of observations and stellar population properties for 23 highly secure host galaxies of fast radio bursts (FRBs). Our sample comprises 6 repeating FRBs and 17 apparent nonrepeaters. We present 82 new photometric and 8 new spectroscopic observations of these hosts. Using stellar population synthesis modeling and employing nonparametric star formation histories (SFHs), we find that FRB hosts have a median stellar mass of ≈109.9M, mass-weighted age ≈5.1 Gyr, and ongoing star formation rate ≈1.3Myr−1but span wide ranges in all properties. Classifying the hosts by degree of star formation, we find that 87% (20 of 23 hosts) are star-forming, two are transitioning, and one is quiescent. The majority trace the star-forming main sequence of galaxies, but at least three FRBs in our sample originate in less-active environments (two nonrepeaters and one repeater). Across all modeled properties, we find no statistically significant distinction between the hosts of repeaters and nonrepeaters. However, the hosts of repeating FRBs generally extend to lower stellar masses, and the hosts of nonrepeaters arise in more optically luminous galaxies. While four of the galaxies with the clearest and most prolonged rises in their SFHs all host repeating FRBs, demonstrating heightened star formation activity in the last ≲100 Myr, one nonrepeating host shows this SFH as well. Our results support progenitor models with short delay channels (i.e., magnetars formed via core-collapse supernova) for most FRBs, but the presence of some FRBs in less-active environments suggests a fraction form through more delayed channels.

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  8. Abstract We present a high-resolution analysis of the host galaxy of fast radio burst (FRB) 190608, an SB(r)c galaxy at z = 0.11778 (hereafter HG 190608), to dissect its local environment and its contributions to the FRB properties. Our Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 ultraviolet and visible light image reveals that the subarcsecond localization of FRB 190608 is coincident with a knot of star formation (Σ SFR = 1.5 × 10 −2 M ⊙ yr −1 kpc −2 ) in the northwest spiral arm of HG 190608. Using H β emission present in our Keck Cosmic Web Imager integral field spectrum of the galaxy with a surface brightness of μ H β = ( 3.36 ± 0.21 ) × 10 − 17 erg s − 1 cm − 2 arcsec − 2 , we infer an extinction-corrected H α surface brightness and compute a dispersion measure (DM) from the interstellar medium of HG 190608 of DM Host,ISM = 94 ± 38 pc cm −3 . The galaxy rotates with a circular velocity v circ = 141 ± 8 km s −1 at an inclination i gas = 37° ± 3°, giving a dynamical mass M halo dyn ≈ 10 11.96 ± 0.08 M ⊙ . This implies a halo contribution to the DM of DM Host,Halo = 55 ± 25 pc cm −3 subject to assumptions on the density profile and fraction of baryons retained. From the galaxy rotation curve, we infer a bar-induced pattern speed of Ω p = 34 ± 6 km s −1 kpc −1 using linear resonance theory. We then calculate the maximum time since star formation for a progenitor using the furthest distance to the arm’s leading edge within the localization, and find t enc = 21 − 6 + 25 Myr. Unlike previous high-resolution studies of FRB environments, we find no evidence of disturbed morphology, emission, or kinematics for FRB 190608. 
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