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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  2. We present experiments on the motion of swimming microbes in a laminar, hyperbolic flow. We test a theory that predicts the existence of swimming invariant manifolds (SwIMs) that act as invisible, one-way barriers that block the motion of the microbes. The flow is generated in a cross-channel in a PDMS cell, driven by syringe pumps. The swimming microbes are euglena and tetraselmis, both single-celled, eukaryotic algae. The algae are not ideal smooth-swimmers: there is significant rocking in their motion with occasional tumbles and a swimming speed that can vary. The experiments show that the swimming algae are bound very effectivelymore »by the predicted SwIMs. The different shapes and swimming behavior of the euglena and tetraselmis affect the distribution of swimming angles, with the elongated euglena having a larger probability of swimming in a direction parallel to the outflow directions. The differences in swimming orientation affect the ability of the microbes to penetrate the manifolds that act as barriers to passive tracers. The differing shapes of the euglena and tetraselmis also affect probabilities for the microbes to escape in one direction or the other along the outflow.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 25, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 8, 2023
  4. Abstract Background We previously developed and validated a predictive model to help clinicians identify hospitalized adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who may be ready for discharge given their low risk of adverse events. Whether this algorithm can prompt more timely discharge for stable patients in practice is unknown. Objectives The aim of the study is to estimate the effect of displaying risk scores on length of stay (LOS). Methods We integrated model output into the electronic health record (EHR) at four hospitals in one health system by displaying a green/orange/red score indicating low/moderate/high-risk in a patient list column and a larger COVID-19more »summary report visible for each patient. Display of the score was pseudo-randomized 1:1 into intervention and control arms using a patient identifier passed to the model execution code. Intervention effect was assessed by comparing LOS between intervention and control groups. Adverse safety outcomes of death, hospice, and re-presentation were tested separately and as a composite indicator. We tracked adoption and sustained use through daily counts of score displays. Results Enrolling 1,010 patients from May 15, 2020 to December 7, 2020, the trial found no detectable difference in LOS. The intervention had no impact on safety indicators of death, hospice or re-presentation after discharge. The scores were displayed consistently throughout the study period but the study lacks a causally linked process measure of provider actions based on the score. Secondary analysis revealed complex dynamics in LOS temporally, by primary symptom, and hospital location. Conclusion An AI-based COVID-19 risk score displayed passively to clinicians during routine care of hospitalized adults with COVID-19 was safe but had no detectable impact on LOS. Health technology challenges such as insufficient adoption, nonuniform use, and provider trust compounded with temporal factors of the COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed to the null result. Trial registration identifier: NCT04570488.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  5. Pteridinium simplex is an iconic erniettomorph taxon best known from late Ediacaran successions in South Australia, Russia, and Namibia. Despite nearly 100 years of study, there remain fundamental questions surrounding the paleobiology and paleoecology of this organism, including its life position relative to the sediment–water interface, and how it fed and functioned within benthic communities. Here, we combine a redescription of specimens housed at the Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Frankfurt with field observations of fossiliferous surfaces, to constrain the life habit of Pteridinium and gain insights into the character of benthic ecosystems shortly before the beginning of the Cambrian. Wemore »present paleontological and sedimentological evidence suggesting that Pteridinium was semi-infaunal and lived gregariously in aggregated communities, preferentially adopting an orientation with the long axis perpendicular to the prevailing current direction. Using computational fluid dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that this life habit could plausibly have led to suspended food particles settling within the organism's central cavity. This supports interpretation of Pteridinium as a macroscopic suspension feeder that functioned similarly to the coeval erniettomorph Ernietta, emblematic of a broader paleoecological shift toward benthic suspension-feeding strategies over the course of the latest Ediacaran. Finally, we discuss how this new reconstruction of Pteridinium provides information concerning its potential relationships with extant animal groups and state a case for reconstructing Pteridinium as a colonial metazoan.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 17, 2023
  6. Abstract Transformation toward a sustainable future requires an earth stewardship approach to shift society from its current goal of increasing material wealth to a vision of sustaining built, natural, human, and social capital—equitably distributed across society, within and among nations. Widespread concern about earth’s current trajectory and support for actions that would foster more sustainable pathways suggests potential social tipping points in public demand for an earth stewardship vision. Here, we draw on empirical studies and theory to show that movement toward a stewardship vision can be facilitated by changes in either policy incentives or social norms. Our novel contributionmore »is to point out that both norms and incentives must change and can do so interactively. This can be facilitated through leverage points and complementarities across policy areas, based on values, system design, and agency. Potential catalysts include novel democratic institutions and engagement of non-governmental actors, such as businesses, civic leaders, and social movements as agents for redistribution of power. Because no single intervention will transform the world, a key challenge is to align actions to be synergistic, persistent, and scalable.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2023
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  9. We investigate a model for the dynamics of ellipsoidal microswimmers in an externally imposed, laminar Kolmogorov flow. Through a phase-space analysis of the dynamics without noise, we find that swimmers favor either cross-stream or rotational drift, depending on their swimming speed and aspect ratio. When including noise, i.e., rotational diffusion, we find that swimmers are driven into certain parts of phase space, leading to a nonuniform steady-state distribution. This distribution exhibits a transition from swimmer aggregation in low-shear regions of the flow to aggregation in high-shear regions as the swimmer’s speed, aspect ratio, and rotational diffusivity are varied. To explainmore »the nonuniform phase-space distribution of swimmers, we apply a weak-noise averaging principle that produces a reduced description of the stochastic swimmer dynamics. Using this technique, we find that certain swimmer trajectories are more favorable than others in the presence of weak rotational diffusion. By combining this information with the phase-space speed of swimmers along each trajectory, we predict the regions of phase space where swimmers tend to accumulate. The results of the averaging technique are in good agreement with direct calculations of the steady-state distributions of swimmers. In particular, our analysis explains the transition from low-shear to high-shear aggregation.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023