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  1. Dutch, Rebecca Ellis. (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Opium poppy mosaic virus (OPMV) is a recently discovered umbravirus in the family Tombusviridae . OPMV has a plus-sense genomic RNA (gRNA) of 4,241 nucleotides (nt) from which replication protein p35 and p35 extension product p98, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), are expressed. Movement proteins p27 (long distance) and p28 (cell to cell) are expressed from a 1,440-nt subgenomic RNA (sgRNA2). A highly conserved structure was identified just upstream from the sgRNA2 transcription start site in all umbraviruses, which includes a carmovirus consensus sequence, denoting generation by an RdRp-mediated mechanism. OPMV also has a second sgRNA of 1,554 nt (sgRNA1) that starts just downstream of a canonical exoribonuclease-resistant sequence (xrRNA D ). sgRNA1 codes for a 30-kDa protein in vitro that is in frame with p28 and cannot be synthesized in other umbraviruses. Eliminating sgRNA1 or truncating the p30 open reading frame (ORF) without affecting p28 substantially reduced accumulation of OPMV gRNA, suggesting a functional role for the protein. The 652-nt 3′ untranslated region of OPMV contains two 3′ cap-independent translation enhancers (3′ CITEs), a T-shaped structure (TSS) near its 3′ end, and a Barley yellow dwarf virus -like translation element (BTE) in the central region. Only the BTE is functionalmore »in luciferase reporter constructs containing gRNA or sgRNA2 5′ sequences in vivo , which differs from how umbravirus 3′ CITEs were used in a previous study. Similarly to most 3′ CITEs, the OPMV BTE links to the 5′ end via a long-distance RNA-RNA interaction. Analysis of 14 BTEs revealed additional conserved sequences and structural features beyond the previously identified 17-nt conserved sequence. IMPORTANCE Opium poppy mosaic virus (OPMV) is an umbravirus in the family Tombusviridae . We determined that OPMV accumulates two similarly sized subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs), with the smaller known to code for proteins expressed from overlapping open reading frames. The slightly larger sgRNA1 has a 5′ end just upstream from a previously predicted xrRNA D site, identifying this sgRNA as an unusually long product produced by exoribonuclease trimming. Although four umbraviruses have similar predicted xrRNA D sites, only sgRNA1 of OPMV can code for a protein that is an extension product of umbravirus ORF4. Inability to generate the sgRNA or translate this protein was associated with reduced gRNA accumulation in vivo . We also characterized the OPMV BTE structure, a 3′ cap-independent translation enhancer (3′ CITE). Comparisons of 13 BTEs with the OPMV BTE revealed additional stretches of sequence similarity beyond the 17-nt signature sequence, as well as conserved structural features not previously recognized in these 3′ CITEs.« less
  2. The complete genome of a new umbra-like virus from edible fig (Ficus carica) was identified by high-throughput sequencing. Based on its similarity to umbra-like virus genome sequences available in GenBank, the proposed name of this new virus is "fig umbra-like virus" (FULV). The genome of full-length FULV-1 consists of 3049 nucleotides organized into three open reading frames (ORFs). Pairwise comparisons showed that the complete nucleotide sequence of the virus had the highest identity (71.3%) to citrus yellow vein-associated virus (CYVaV). In addition, phylogenetic trees based on whole-genome nucleotide sequences and amino acid sequences of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase showed that FULV forms a monophyletic lineage with CYVaV and other umbra-like viruses. Based on the demarcation criteria of the genus Umbravirus, and lack of two umbravirus ORFs, we propose that FULV is a putative new member of the umbra-like virus clade within the family Tombusviridae.
  3. null (Ed.)
    We report the biological and structural characterization of umbravirus-like associated RNAs (ulaRNAs), a new category of coat-protein dependent subviral RNA replicons that infect plants. These RNAs encode an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) following a −1 ribosomal frameshift event, are 2.7–4.6 kb in length, and are related to umbraviruses, unlike similar RNA replicons that are related to tombusviruses. Three classes of ulaRNAs are proposed, with citrus yellow vein associated virus (CYVaV) placed in Class 2. With the exception of CYVaV, Class 2 and Class 3 ulaRNAs encode an additional open reading frame (ORF) with movement protein-like motifs made possible by additional sequences just past the RdRp termination codon. The full-length secondary structure of CYVaV was determined using Selective 2’ Hydroxyl Acylation analyzed by Primer Extension (SHAPE) structure probing and phylogenic comparisons, which was used as a template for determining the putative structures of the other Class 2 ulaRNAs, revealing a number of distinctive structural features. The ribosome recoding sites of nearly all ulaRNAs, which differ significantly from those of umbraviruses, may exist in two conformations and are highly efficient. The 3′ regions of Class 2 and Class 3 ulaRNAs have structural elements similar to those of nearly all umbraviruses, and allmore »Class 2 ulaRNAs have a unique, conserved 3′ cap-independent translation enhancer. CYVaV replicates independently in protoplasts, demonstrating that the reported sequence is full-length. Additionally, CYVaV contains a sequence in its 3′ UTR that confers protection to nonsense mediated decay (NMD), thus likely obviating the need for umbravirus ORF3, a known suppressor of NMD. This initial characterization lays down a road map for future investigations into these novel virus-like RNAs.« less
  4. It is with great sadness and sympathy for his family and the plant virology community that we convey the passing of Michael Goodin unexpectedly in December 2020 [...]
  5. Citrus yellow-vein disease (CYVD) was first reported in California in 1957. We now report that CYVD is associated with a virus-like agent, provisionally named citrus yellow-vein associated virus (CYVaV). The CYVaV RNA genome has 2,692 nucleotides and codes for two discernable open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a protein of 190 amino acid (aa) whereas ORF2 is presumably generated by a −1 ribosomal frameshifting event just upstream of the ORF1 termination signal. The frameshift product (717 aa) encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that CYVaV is closely related to unclassified virus-like RNAs in the family Tombusviridae . Bio-indexing and RNA-seq experiments indicate that CYVaV can induce yellow vein symptoms independently of known citrus viruses or viroids.
  6. Abstract

    Canonical eukaryotic mRNA translation requires 5′cap recognition by initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). In contrast, many positive-strand RNA virus genomes lack a 5′cap and promote translation by non-canonical mechanisms. Among plant viruses, PTEs are a major class of cap-independent translation enhancers located in/near the 3′UTR that recruit eIF4E to greatly enhance viral translation. Previous work proposed a single form of PTE characterized by a Y-shaped secondary structure with two terminal stem-loops (SL1 and SL2) atop a supporting stem containing a large, G-rich asymmetric loop that forms an essential pseudoknot (PK) involving C/U residues located between SL1 and SL2. We found that PTEs with less than three consecutive cytidylates available for PK formation have an upstream stem-loop that forms a kissing loop interaction with the apical loop of SL2, important for formation/stabilization of PK. PKs found in both subclasses of PTE assume a specific conformation with a hyperreactive guanylate (G*) in SHAPE structure probing, previously found critical for binding eIF4E. While PTE PKs were proposed to be formed by Watson–Crick base-pairing, alternative chemical probing and 3D modeling indicate that the Watson–Crick faces of G* and an adjacent guanylate have high solvent accessibilities. Thus, PTE PKs are likely composed primarily of non-canonicalmore »interactions.

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