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  1. Asymmetric synthesis of substituted 1,4 cyclohexadienes and cyclobutenes has received great attention in recent years. Strategies such as base metal catalyzed cycloaddition bypass the need of harsh reaction conditions which are often required for synthesis of such motifs. These strategies using base-metals as catalysts are also valuable in constructing substituted cyclic motifs from readily available and inexpensive materials such as dienes and alkynes. Such reactions can be cost effective and environmentally friendly. In past decade, low valent cobalt has shown promising reactivity in forming new C-C and C-X (e. g., X= Si, B, N) bonds in high stereoselectivity. Through our studies, we found that cationic cobalt(I) complexes can catalyze intermolecular cycloaddition reactions of alkyne and 1,3-dienes in regio-and enantioselective manner. We also discovered that the involvement of 4-pi electrons or 2-pi electrons of 1,3-dienes can be controlled by the judicious choice of ligands employed on cobalt leading to [4+2] and [2+2] cycloaddition products respectively in high regio- and stereoselectivity. This excellent selectivity complimented with moderate to good yields provided us with broadly applicable protocol for synthesis of diversely substituted enantiopure cyclic motifs with enantiomeric excesses upto 99%. The scope of this method has been expanded over simple aliphatic and aromatic 1,3-dienes and alkynes bearing various functional groups. The methodical development of this transformation along with the ligand effects and possible mechanisms will be discussed in detail. 
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  2. Asymmetric synthesis of substituted 1,4 cyclohexadienes and cyclobutenes has received great attention in recent years. Strategies such as base metal catalyzed cycloaddition bypass the need of harsh reaction conditions which are often required for synthesis of such motifs. These strategies using base-metals as catalysts are also valuable in constructing substituted cyclic motifs from readily available and inexpensive materials such as dienes and alkynes. Such reactions can be cost effective and environmentally friendly. In past decade, low valent cobalt has shown promising reactivity in forming new C-C and C-X (e. g., X= Si, B, N) bonds in high stereoselectivity. Through our studies, we found that cationic cobalt(I) complexes can catalyze intermolecular cycloaddition reactions of alkyne and 1,3-dienes in regio-and enantioselective manner. We also discovered that the involvement of 4 pi electrons or 2 pi electrons of 1,3-dienes can be controlled by the judicious choice of ligands employed on cobalt leading to [4+2] and [2+2] cycloaddition products respectively in high regio- and stereoselectivity. This excellent selectivity complimented with moderate to good yields provided us with broadly applicable protocol for synthesis of diversely substituted enantiopure cyclic motifs with enantiomeric excesses upto 99%. The scope of this method has been expanded over simple aliphatic and aromatic 1,3-dienes and alkynes bearing various functional groups. The methodical development of this transformation along with the ligand effects and possible mechanisms will be discussed in detail. 
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  3. From 1875 to 1878, concurrent multiyear droughts in Asia, Brazil, and Africa, referred to as the Great Drought, caused widespread crop failures, catalyzing the so-called Global Famine, which had fatalities exceeding 50 million people and long-lasting societal consequences. Observations, paleoclimate reconstructions, and climatemodel simulations are used 1) to demonstrate the severity and characterize the evolution of drought across different regions, and 2) to investigate the underlying mechanisms driving its multiyear persistence. Severe or record-setting droughts occurred on continents in both hemispheres and in multiple seasons, with the ‘‘Monsoon Asia’’ region being the hardest hit, experiencing the single most intense and the second most expansive drought in the last 800 years. The extreme severity, duration, and extent of this global event is associated with an extraordinary combination of preceding cool tropical Pacific conditions (1870–76), a record-breaking El Niño (1877–78), a record strong Indian Ocean dipole (1877), and record warm North Atlantic Ocean (1878) conditions. Composites of historical analogs and two sets of ensemble simulations—one forced with global sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and another forced with tropical Pacific SSTs—were used to distinguish the role of the extreme conditions in different ocean basins. While the drought in most regions was largely driven by the tropical Pacific SST conditions, an extreme positive phase of the Indian Ocean dipole and warm NorthAtlantic SSTs, both likely aided by the strong El Niño in 1877–78, intensified and prolonged droughts in Australia and Brazil, respectively, and extended the impact to northern and southeastern Africa. Climatic conditions that caused the Great Drought and Global Famine arose from natural variability, and their recurrence, with hydrological impacts intensified by global warming, could again potentially undermine global food security. 
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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  5. Abstract

    We search for gravitational-wave (GW) transients associated with fast radio bursts (FRBs) detected by the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment Fast Radio Burst Project, during the first part of the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo (2019 April 1 15:00 UTC–2019 October 1 15:00 UTC). Triggers from 22 FRBs were analyzed with a search that targets both binary neutron star (BNS) and neutron star–black hole (NSBH) mergers. A targeted search for generic GW transients was conducted on 40 FRBs. We find no significant evidence for a GW association in either search. Given the large uncertainties in the distances of our FRB sample, we are unable to exclude the possibility of a GW association. Assessing the volumetric event rates of both FRB and binary mergers, an association is limited to 15% of the FRB population for BNS mergers or 1% for NSBH mergers. We report 90% confidence lower bounds on the distance to each FRB for a range of GW progenitor models and set upper limits on the energy emitted through GWs for a range of emission scenarios. We find values of order 1051–1057erg for models with central GW frequencies in the range 70–3560 Hz. At the sensitivity of this search, we find these limits to be above the predicted GW emissions for the models considered. We also find no significant coincident detection of GWs with the repeater, FRB 20200120E, which is the closest known extragalactic FRB.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 28, 2024