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Creators/Authors contains: "Singha, Kamini"

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    The western U.S. is experiencing shifts in recharge due to climate change, and it is currently unclear how hydrologic shifts will impact geochemical weathering and stream concentration–discharge (CQ) patterns. Hydrologists often useCQanalyses to assess feedbacks between stream discharge and geochemistry, given abundant stream discharge and chemistry data. Chemostasis is commonly observed, indicating that geochemical controls, rather than changes in discharge, are shaping streamCQpatterns. However, fewCQstudies investigate how geochemical reactions evolve along groundwater flowpaths before groundwater contributes to streamflow, resulting in potential omission of importantCQcontrols such as coupled mineral dissolution and clay precipitation and subsequent cation exchange. Here, we use field observations—including groundwater age, stream discharge, and stream and groundwater chemistry—to analyseCQrelations in the Manitou Experimental Forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA, a site where chemostasis is observed. We combine field data with laboratory analyses of whole rock and clay x‐ray diffraction and soil cation‐extraction experiments to investigate the role that clays play in influencing stream chemistry. We use Geochemist's Workbench to identify geochemical reactions driving stream chemistry and subsequently suggest how climate change will impact streamCQtrends. We show that as groundwater age increases,CQslope and stream solute response are not impacted. Instead, primary mineral dissolution and subsequent clay precipitation drive strong chemostasis for silica and aluminium and enable cation exchange that buffers calcium and magnesium concentrations, leading to weak chemostatic behaviour for divalent cations. The influence of clays on streamCQhighlights the importance of delineating geochemical controls along flowpaths, as upgradient mineral dissolution and clay precipitation enable downgradient cation exchange. Our results suggest that geochemical reactions will not be impacted by future decreasing flows, and thus where chemostasis currently exists, it will continue to persist despite changes in recharge.

     
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  4. Abstract. Many studies in ecohydrology focusing on hydrologictransport argue that longer residence times across a stream ecosystem shouldconsistently result in higher biological uptake of carbon, nutrients, andoxygen. This consideration does not incorporate the potential forbiologically mediated reactions to be limited by stoichiometric imbalances.Based on the relevance and co-dependences between hydrologic exchange,stoichiometry, and biological uptake and acknowledging the limited amountof field studies available to determine their net effects on the retentionand export of resources, we quantified how microbial respiration iscontrolled by the interactions between and the supply of essential nutrients (C, N, and P)in a headwater stream in Colorado, USA. For this, we conducted two rounds ofnutrient experiments, each consisting of four sets of continuous injectionsof Cl− as a conservative tracer, resazurin as a proxy for aerobicrespiration, and one of the following nutrient treatments: (a) N, (b) N+C,(c) N+P, or (d) C+N+P. Nutrient treatments were considered to be knownsystem modifications that alter metabolism, and statistical tests helpedidentify the relationships between reach-scale hydrologic transport andrespiration metrics. We found that as discharge changed significantlybetween rounds and across stoichiometric treatments, (a) transient storagemainly occurred in pools lateral to the main channel and was proportional todischarge, and (b) microbial respiration remained similar between rounds andacross stoichiometric treatments. Our results contradict the notion thathydrologic transport alone is a dominant control on biogeochemicalprocessing and suggest that complex interactions between hydrology, resourcesupply, and biological community function are responsible for drivingin-stream respiration. 
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  5. Internal water storage within trees can be a critical reservoir that helps trees overcome both short- and long-duration environmental stresses. We monitored changes in internal tree water storage in a ponderosa pine on daily and seasonal scales using moisture probes, a dendrometer, and time-lapse electrical resistivity imaging (ERI). These data were used to investigate how patterns of in-tree water storage are affected by changes in sapflow rates, soil moisture, and meteorologic factors such as vapor pressure deficit. Measurements of xylem fluid electrical conductivity were constant in the early growing season while inverted sapwood electrical conductivity steadily increased, suggesting that increases in sapwood electrical conductivity did not result from an increase in xylem fluid electrical conductivity. Seasonal increases in stem electrical conductivity corresponded with seasonal increases in trunk diameter, suggesting that increased electrical conductivity may result from new growth. On the daily scale, changes in inverted sapwood electrical conductivity correspond to changes in sapwood moisture. Wavelet analyses indicated that lag times between inverted electrical conductivity and sapflow increased after storm events, suggesting that as soils wetted, reliance on internal water storage decreased, as did the time required to refill daily deficits in internal water storage. We found short time lags between sapflow and inverted electrical conductivity with dry conditions, when ponderosa pine are known to reduce stomatal conductance to avoid xylem cavitation. A decrease in diel amplitudes of inverted sapwood electrical conductivity during dry periods suggest that the ponderosa pine relied on internal water storage to supplement transpiration demands, but as drought conditions progressed, tree water storage contributions to transpiration decreased. Time-lapse ERI- and wavelet-analysis results highlight the important role internal tree water storage plays in supporting transpiration throughout a day and during periods of declining subsurface moisture. 
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