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  1. Naor, Joseph ; Buchbinder, Niv (Ed.)
  2. Naor, Joseph ; Buchbinder, Niv (Ed.)
  3. Wootters, Mary and (Ed.)
    We consider online scheduling to minimize weighted completion time on related machines, where each job consists of several tasks that can be concurrently executed. A job gets completed when all its component tasks finish. We obtain an O(K³ log² K)-competitive algorithm in the non-clairvoyant setting, where K denotes the number of distinct machine speeds. The analysis is based on dual-fitting on a precedence-constrained LP relaxation that may be of independent interest.
  4. Deep neural networks (DNNs) are increasingly used in real-world applications (e.g. facial recognition). This has resulted in concerns about the fairness of decisions made by these models. Various notions and measures of fairness have been proposed to ensure that a decision-making system does not disproportionately harm (or benefit) particular subgroups of the population. In this paper, we argue that traditional notions of fairness that are only based on models' outputs are not sufficient when the model is vulnerable to adversarial attacks. We argue that in some cases, it may be easier for an attacker to target a particular subgroup, resulting in a form of robustness bias. We show that measuring robustness bias is a challenging task for DNNs and propose two methods to measure this form of bias. We then conduct an empirical study on state-of-the-art neural networks on commonly used real-world datasets such as CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, Adience, and UTKFace and show that in almost all cases there are subgroups (in some cases based on sensitive attributes like race, gender, etc) which are less robust and are thus at a disadvantage. We argue that this kind of bias arises due to both the data distribution and the highly complex naturemore »of the learned decision boundary in the case of DNNs, thus making mitigation of such biases a non-trivial task. Our results show that robustness bias is an important criterion to consider while auditing real-world systems that rely on DNNs for decision making. Code to reproduce all our results can be found here:« less
  5. A robustness certificate is the minimum distance of a given input to the decision boundary of the classifier (or its lower bound). For {\it any} input perturbations with a magnitude smaller than the certificate value, the classification output will provably remain unchanged. Exactly computing the robustness certificates for neural networks is difficult since it requires solving a non-convex optimization. In this paper, we provide computationally-efficient robustness certificates for neural networks with differentiable activation functions in two steps. First, we show that if the eigenvalues of the Hessian of the network are bounded, we can compute a robustness certificate in the l2 norm efficiently using convex optimization. Second, we derive a computationally-efficient differentiable upper bound on the curvature of a deep network. We also use the curvature bound as a regularization term during the training of the network to boost its certified robustness. Putting these results together leads to our proposed {\bf C}urvature-based {\bf R}obustness {\bf C}ertificate (CRC) and {\bf C}urvature-based {\bf R}obust {\bf T}raining (CRT). Our numerical results show that CRT leads to significantly higher certified robust accuracy compared to interval-bound propagation (IBP) based training. We achieve certified robust accuracy 69.79\%, 57.78\% and 53.19\% while IBP-based methods achieve 44.96\%, 44.74\%more »and 44.66\% on 2,3 and 4 layer networks respectively on the MNIST-dataset.« less