skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Sivapragasam, Smitha"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. DNA base damage arises frequently in living cells and needs to be removed by base excision repair (BER) to prevent mutagenesis and genome instability. Both the formation and repair of base damage occur in chromatin and are conceivably affected by DNA-binding proteins such as transcription factors (TFs). However, to what extent TF binding affects base damage distribution and BER in cells is unclear. Here, we used a genome-wide damage mapping method, N -methylpurine-sequencing (NMP-seq), and characterized alkylation damage distribution and BER at TF binding sites in yeast cells treated with the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). Our data show that alkylation damage formation was mainly suppressed at the binding sites of yeast TFs ARS binding factor 1 (Abf1) and rDNA enhancer binding protein 1 (Reb1), but individual hotspots with elevated damage levels were also found. Additionally, Abf1 and Reb1 binding strongly inhibits BER in vivo and in vitro, causing slow repair both within the core motif and its adjacent DNA. Repair of ultraviolet (UV) damage by nucleotide excision repair (NER) was also inhibited by TF binding. Interestingly, TF binding inhibits a larger DNA region for NER relative to BER. The observed effects are caused by the TF–DNA interaction, because damagemore »formation and BER can be restored by depletion of Abf1 or Reb1 protein from the nucleus. Thus, our data reveal that TF binding significantly modulates alkylation base damage formation and inhibits repair by the BER pathway. The interplay between base damage formation and BER may play an important role in affecting mutation frequency in gene regulatory regions.« less
  2. ABSTRACT The stringent response involves accumulation of (p)ppGpp, and it ensures that survival is prioritized. Production of (p)ppGpp requires purine synthesis, and upregulation of an operon that encodes the purine salvage enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) has been observed during stringent response in some bacterial species, where direct binding of ppGpp to a TetR-family transcription factor is responsible for increased xdh gene expression. We show here that the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum has a regulatory system in which the LysR-family transcription factor XanR controls expression of the xan operon; this operon encodes Xdh as well as other enzymes involved in purine salvage, which favor accumulation of xanthine. XanR bound upstream of the xan operon, a binding that was attenuated on addition of either ppGpp or cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP). Using a reporter in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is expressed under control of a modified xan promoter, XanR was shown to repress EGFP production. Our data suggest that R. solanacearum features a regulatory mechanism in which expression of genes encoding purine salvage enzymes is controlled by a transcription factor that belongs to a different protein family, yet performs similar regulatory functions.
  3. Stress and starvation causes bacterial cells to activate the stringent response. This results in down-regulation of energy-requiring processes related to growth, as well as an upregulation of genes associated with survival and stress responses. Guanosine tetra- and pentaphosphates (collectively referred to as (p)ppGpp) are critical for this process. In Gram-positive bacteria, a main function of (p)ppGpp is to limit cellular levels of GTP, one consequence of which is reduced transcription of genes that require GTP as the initiating nucleotide, such as rRNA genes. In Streptomycetes, the stringent response is also linked to complex morphological differentiation and to production of secondary metabolites, including antibiotics. These processes are also influenced by the second messenger c-di-GMP. Since GTP is a substrate for both (p)ppGpp and c-di-GMP, a finely tuned regulation of cellular GTP levels is required to ensure adequate synthesis of these guanosine derivatives. Here, we discuss mechanisms that operate to control guanosine metabolism and how they impinge on the production of antibiotics in Streptomyces species.