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  1. Ware, Jessica (Ed.)
    Abstract Recent molecular analyses of transcriptome data from 94 species across 92 genera of North American Plecoptera identified the genus Kathroperla Banks, 1920 as sister group to Chloroperlidae + Perlodidae. Given that the genus Kathroperla has historically been included as a member of the family Chloroperlidae, this discovery indicated further investigation of the genus and the subfamily Paraperlinae was needed. Both transcriptome and genome sequencing datasets were generated from 32 species of the infraorder Systellognatha, including all described species of the Paraperlinae, to test the phylogenetic placement of these taxa. From these datasets, a large phylogenomic data matrix of 800 orthologous genes was produced, and multiple analyses were conducted, including both concatenated and coalescent analyses. Morphological comparisons were made among all Paraperlinae using light microscopy. All molecular results support a monophyletic Kathroperla, which is supported as sister taxon to the remaining Perloidea by five of six molecular analyses. Postocular head length is determined to be a distinct morphological character of this genus. Combined molecular and morphological evidence support the designation of Kathroperlidae, fam. n., as the seventeenth family of extant Plecoptera. 
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  2. null (Ed.)
  3. Abstract

    The suborder Auchenorrhyncha (“true hoppers”) comprises nearly half of known Hemiptera, with >43,000 known species of sap‐sucking herbivores distributed worldwide, including many important agricultural pests and vectors of plant disease. More than half of the known Auchenorrhyncha belong to superfamily Membracoidea (leaf‐ and treehoppers), which has been a source of phylogenetic contention for many years. To construct an improved backbone phylogeny of this superfamily, we obtained transcriptome data for multiple representatives of all 5 previously established extant families and nearly all subfamilies to test their monophyly and relationships. 138 taxa (132 Membracoidea and 6 outgroups) were sampled with an emphasis on families Cicadellidae and Membracidae, which were paraphyletic as previously defined by most authors, several problematic subfamilies (Aphrodinae, Eurymelinae, Ledrinae, Nicomiinae, Stegaspidinae and Tartessinae). We analysed different combinations of data sets (amino acid, complete nucleotide and degeneracy‐coded nucleotide) using different modelling schemes. The resultant trees based on different analyses are congruent in most nodes. Discordant nodes mainly pertain to relationships among cicadellid subfamilies and tribal relationships within Aphrodinae and Eurymelinae. Analyses of gene‐ and site concordance factors and quartet scores indicate that this instability is largely attributable to an overall lack of informative characters across genes and sites rather than strongly supported conflict among genes. According to the congruent nodes, we make the following revisions: combine Stegaspidinae and Centrotinae into a single subfamily, Centrotinae sensu lato; restore Stenocotini from Tartessinae to its original position in the Ledrinae; and transformHoldgatiellaEvans from Nicomiinae to Melizoderinae. In addition, to solve the paraphyly of both Cicadellidae and Membracidae, a preferred option would be to combine all five previously recognized families into a single family, Membracidae sensu lato; the other option could be to render Cicadellidae monophyletic by excluding Megophthalminae and Ulopinae from Cicadellidae and elevating them to status as separate families.

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  4. Abstract

    The hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha is a highly diverse, ecologically and agriculturally important group of primarily phytophagous insects which has been a source of phylogenetic contention for many years. Here, we have used transcriptome sequencing to assemble 2139 orthologues from 84 auchenorrhynchan species representing 27 families; this is the largest and most taxonomically comprehensive phylogenetic dataset for this group to date. We used both maximum likelihood and multispecies coalescent analyses to reconstruct the evolutionary history in this group using amino acid, nucleotide, and degeneracy‐coded nucleotide orthologue data. Although many relationships at the superfamily level were consistent between analyses, several differing, highly supported topologies were recovered using different datasets and reconstruction methods, most notably the differential placement of Cercopoidea as sister to either Cicadoidea or Membracoidea. To further interrogate the recovered topologies, we explored the contribution of genes as partitioned by third‐codon‐position guanine‐cytosine (GC) content and heterogeneity. We found consistent support for several relationships, including Cercopoidea + Cicadoidea, most often in genes that would be expected to be enriched for the true species tree if recombination‐based dynamics in GC content have contributed to the observed GC heterogeneity. Our results provide a generally well‐supported framework for future studies of auchenorrhynchan phylogeny and suggest that transcriptome sequencing is likely to be a fruitful source of phylogenetic data for resolving its clades. However, we caution that future work should account for the potential effects of GC content heterogeneity on relationships recovered in this group.

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