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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. Abstract

    Quantum computing has the potential to revolutionize computing, but its significant sensitivity to noise requires sophisticated error correction and mitigation. Traditionally, noise on the quantum device is characterized directly through qubit and gate measurements, but this approach has drawbacks in that it does not adequately capture the effect of noise on realistic multi-qubit applications. In this paper, we simulate the relaxation of stationary quantum states on a quantum computer to obtain a unique spectroscopic fingerprint of the computer’s noise. In contrast to traditional approaches, we obtain the frequency profile of the noise as it is experienced by the simulated stationary quantum states. Data from multiple superconducting-qubit IBM processors show that noise generates a bath within the simulation that exhibits both colored noise and non-Markovian behavior. Our results provide a direction for noise mitigation but also suggest how to use noise for quantum simulations of open systems.

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  3. Abstract

    Molecular simulations generally require fermionic encoding in which fermion statistics are encoded into the qubit representation of the wave function. Recent calculations suggest that fermionic encoding of the wave function can be bypassed, leading to more efficient quantum computations. Here we show that the two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) can be expressed as a unique functional of the unencodedN-qubit-particle wave function without approximation, and hence, the energy can be expressed as a functional of the 2-RDM without fermionic encoding of the wave function. In contrast to current hardware-efficient methods, the derived functional has a unique, one-to-one (and onto) mapping between the qubit-particle wave functions and 2-RDMs, which avoids the over-parametrization that can lead to optimization difficulties such as barren plateaus. An application to computing the ground-state energy and 2-RDM of H4is presented.

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  4. null (Ed.)