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    The observability of Lyα emitting galaxies (LAEs) during the Epoch of Reionization can provide a sensitive probe of the evolving neutral hydrogen gas distribution, thus setting valuable constraints to distinguish different reionization models. In this study, we utilize the new thesan suite of large-volume ($L_\text{box} = 95.5\, \text{cMpc}$) cosmological radiation-hydrodynamic simulations to directly model the Lyα emission from individual galaxies and the subsequent transmission through the intergalactic medium. thesan combines the arepo-rt radiation-hydrodynamic solver with the IllustrisTNG galaxy formation model and includes high- and medium-resolution simulations designed to investigate the impacts of halo-mass-dependent escape fractions, alternative dark matter models, and numerical convergence. We find important differences in the Lyα transmission based on reionization history, bubble morphology, frequency offset from line centre, and galaxy brightness. For a given global neutral fraction, Lyα transmission reduces when low-mass haloes dominate reionization over high-mass haloes. Furthermore, the variation across sightlines for a single galaxy is greater than the variation across all galaxies. This collectively affects the visibility of LAEs, directly impacting observed Lyα luminosity functions (LFs). We employ Gaussian Process Regression using SWIFTEmulator to rapidly constrain an empirical model for dust escape fractions and emergent spectral-line profiles to match observed LFs. We findmore »that dust strongly impacts the Lyα transmission and covering fractions of MUV ≲ −19 galaxies in $M_\text{vir} \gtrsim 10^{11}\, \text{M}_{\bigodot }$ haloes, such that the dominant mode of removing Lyα photons in non-LAEs changes from low-IGM transmission to high dust absorption around z ∼ 7.

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    Backsplash galaxies are galaxies that once resided inside a cluster, and have migrated back outside as they move towards the apocentre of their orbit. The kinematic properties of these galaxies are well understood, thanks to the significant study of backsplashers in dark matter-only simulations, but their intrinsic properties are not well-constrained due to modelling uncertainties in subgrid physics, ram pressure stripping, dynamical friction, and tidal forces. In this paper, we use the IllustrisTNG300-1 simulation, with a baryonic resolution of Mb ≈ 1.1 × 107 M⊙, to study backsplash galaxies around 1302 isolated galaxy clusters with mass 1013.0 < M200,mean/M⊙ < 1015.5. We employ a decision tree classifier to extract features of galaxies that make them likely to be backsplash galaxies, compared to nearby field galaxies, and find that backsplash galaxies have low gas fractions, high mass-to-light ratios, large stellar sizes, and low black hole occupation fractions. We investigate in detail the origins of these large sizes, and hypothesize their origins are linked to the tidal environments in the cluster. We show that the black hole recentring scheme employed in many cosmological simulations leads to the loss of black holes from galaxies accreted into clusters, and suggest improvements to these models. Generally, wemore »find that backsplash galaxies are a useful population to test and understand numerical galaxy formation models due to their challenging environments and evolutionary pathways that interact with poorly constrained physics.

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    The tension between the diverging density profiles in Lambda cold dark matter simulations and the constant-density inner regions of observed galaxies is a long-standing challenge known as the ‘core–cusp’ problem. We demonstrate that the SMUGGLE galaxy formation model implemented in the arepo moving mesh code forms constant-density cores in idealized dwarf galaxies of M⋆ ≈ 8 × 107 Msun with initially cuspy dark matter (DM) haloes of M200 ≈ 1010 Msun. Identical initial conditions run with an effective equation of state interstellar medium model preserve cuspiness. Literature on the subject has pointed to the low density threshold for star formation, ρth, in such effective models as an obstacle to baryon-induced core formation. Using a SMUGGLE run with equal ρth, we demonstrate that core formation can proceed at low density thresholds, indicating that ρth is insufficient on its own to determine whether a galaxy develops a core. We reaffirm that the ability to resolve a multiphase interstellar medium at sufficiently high densities is a more reliable indicator of core formation than any individual model parameter. In SMUGGLE, core formation is accompanied by large degrees of non-circular motion, with gas rotational velocity profiles that consistently fall below the circular velocity $v_\text{circ} = \sqrt{GM/R}$ out to ∼2 kpc. Asymmetric drift corrections help recovermore »the average underlying DM potential for some of our less efficient feedback runs, but time-variations in the instantaneous azimuthal gas velocity component are substantial, highlighting the need for careful modelling in the inner regions of dwarfs to infer the true distribution of DM.

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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  5. ABSTRACT Line intensity mapping (LIM) is rapidly emerging as a powerful technique to study galaxy formation and cosmology in the high-redshift Universe. We present LIM estimates of select spectral lines originating from the interstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies and 21 cm emission from neutral hydrogen gas in the Universe using the large volume, high resolution thesan reionization simulations. A combination of subresolution photoionization modelling for H ii regions and Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations is employed to estimate the dust-attenuated spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of high-redshift galaxies (z ≳ 5.5). We show that the derived photometric properties such as the ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function and the UV continuum slopes match observationally inferred values, demonstrating the accuracy of the SED modelling. We provide fits to the luminosity–star formation rate relation (L–SFR) for the brightest emission lines and find that important differences exist between the derived scaling relations and the widely used low-z ones because the ISM of reionization era galaxies is generally less metal enriched than in their low-redshift counterparts. We use these relations to construct line intensity maps of nebular emission lines and cross-correlate with the 21 cm emission. Interestingly, the wavenumber at which the correlation switches sign (ktransition) depends heavily on themore »reionization model and to a lesser extent on the targeted emission line, which is consistent with the picture that ktransition probes the typical sizes of ionized regions. The derived scaling relations and intensity maps represent a timely state-of-the-art framework for forecasting and interpreting results from current and upcoming LIM experiments.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 28, 2023

    Hydrogen emission lines can provide extensive information about star-forming galaxies in both the local and high-redshift Universe. We present a detailed Lyman continuum (LyC), Lyman-α (Lyα), and Balmer line (Hα and Hβ) radiative transfer study of a high-resolution isolated Milky Way simulation using the state-of-the-art Arepo-RT radiation hydrodynamics code with the SMUGGLE galaxy formation model. The realistic framework includes stellar feedback, non-equilibrium thermochemistry accounting for molecular hydrogen, and dust grain evolution in the interstellar medium (ISM). We extend our publicly available Cosmic Lyα Transfer (COLT) code with photoionization equilibrium Monte Carlo radiative transfer and various methodology improvements for self-consistent end-to-end (non-)resonant line predictions. Accurate LyC reprocessing to recombination emission requires modelling pre-absorption by dust ($f_\text{abs} \approx 27.5\,\rm{per\,\,cent}$), helium ionization ($f_\text{He} \approx 8.7\,\rm{per\,\,cent}$), and anisotropic escape fractions ($f_\text{esc} \approx 7.9\,\rm{per\,\,cent}$), as these reduce the available budget for hydrogen line emission ($f_\text{H} \approx 55.9\,\rm{per\,\,cent}$). We investigate the role of the multiphase dusty ISM, disc geometry, gas kinematics, and star formation activity in governing the physics of emission and escape, focusing on the time variability, gas-phase structure, and spatial spectral, and viewing angle dependence of the emergent photons. Isolated disc simulations are well-suited for comprehensive observational comparisons with local Hα surveys, butmore »would require a proper cosmological circumgalactic medium (CGM) environment as well as less dust absorption and rotational broadening to serve as analogs for high-redshift Lyα emitting galaxies. Future applications of our framework to next-generation cosmological simulations of galaxy formation including radiation-hydrodynamics that resolve ≲10 pc multiphase ISM and ≲1 kpc CGM structures will provide crucial insights and predictions for current and upcoming Lyα observations.

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  7. Blapstinus Dejean is the most taxonomically challenging genus within Blapstinina Mulsant & Rey (Tenebrionidae: Opatrini). With over 120 species, it is widely distributed throughout the Americas, with representatives reaching Canada on the northern range edge, and Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay in the south. Traditionally, Blapstinus has been distinguished from other blapstinoid beetles via well-developed metathoracic wings and their lack of synapomorphies present in other genera; however, fused and tapering aedeagal parameres were recently introduced as a potential autapomorphy for the genus. This study used molecular data (nuclear ribosomal 28S, cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII), arginine kinase (ArgK), carbomyl-phosphate synthetase domain of rudimentary (CAD), and wingless (wg)) to investigate the phylogenetic placement and taxonomic status of three Blapstinus species with distinct male genitalic morphology, i.e. Blapstinus tibialis Champion (USA), B. grandis Champion (Mexico, Nicaragua), and B. punctulatus Solier (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay). Analyses highlight the phylogenetic informativeness of the aedeagal morphology within the subtribe, and support an urgent need for taxonomic studies of South American taxa. Blapstinus tibialis and B. grandis were recovered as a specific lineage within Blapstinus that can be easily distinguished from remaining congeners by having tridentate parameres. A lectotype for B. grandis is designated to fixmore »the taxonomic status of this species. Blapstinus punctulatus was recovered outside of its current genus which, along with aedeagal morphology, supports a change of status of the species. As a result, the following synonymy and combinations are introduced: Lodinus Mulsant and Rey stat. restit. (=Austrocaribius Marcuzzi syn. nov.), Lodinus araguae (Marcuzzi) comb. et stat. nov., L. punctulatus comb. nov., L. venezuelensis (Marcuzzi) comb. nov. Lectotypes for Lodinus nigroaeneus Mulsant and Rey, L. araguae, and L. punctulatus are designated to fix the taxonomic status of these species.« less
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023