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  1. Abstract

    Evidence of fluctuations in transport have long been predicted in3He. They are expected to contribute only within 100μK ofTcand play a vital role in the theoretical modeling of ordering; they encode details about the Fermi liquid parameters, pairing symmetry, and scattering phase shifts. It is expected that they will be of crucial importance for transport probes of the topologically nontrivial features of superfluid3He under strong confinement. Here we characterize the temperature and pressure dependence of the fluctuation signature, by monitoring the quality factor of a quartz tuning fork oscillator. We have observed a fluctuation-driven reduction in the viscosity of bulk3He, finding data collapse consistent with the predicted theoretical behavior.

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  2. Abstract

    Rivers are known to act as biogeographic barriers in several strictly terrestrial taxa, while possibly serving as conduits of dispersal for freshwater-tolerant or -dependent species. However, the influence of river systems on genetic diversity depends on taxa-specific life history traits as well as other geographic factors. In amphibians, several studies have demonstrated that river systems have only minor influence on their divergence. Here, we assess the role of the paleodrainage systems of the Sunda region (with a focus on the island of Sumatra) in shaping the evolutionary history of two genera of frogs (SumateranaandWijayarana) whose tadpoles are highly dependent on cascading stream habitats. Our phylogenetic results show no clear association between the genetic diversification patterns of both anurans genera and the existence of paleodrainage systems. Time-calibrated phylogenies and biogeographical models suggest that these frogs colonized Sumatra and diversified on the island before the occurrence of the Pleistocene drainage systems. Both genera demonstrate phylogenetic structuring along a north–south geographic axis, the temporal dynamics of which coincide with the geological chronology of proto Sumatran and -Javan volcanic islands. Our results also highlight the chronic underestimation of Sumatran biodiversity and call for more intense sampling efforts on the island.

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  3. Abstract

    Catastrophic events, such as volcanic eruptions, can have profound impacts on the demographic histories of resident taxa. Due to its presumed effect on biodiversity, the Pleistocene eruption of super‐volcano Toba has received abundant attention. We test the effects of the Toba eruption on the diversification, genetic diversity, and demography of three co‐distributed species of parachuting frogs (GenusRhacophorus) on Sumatra. We generate target‐capture data (~950 loci and ~440,000 bp) for three species of parachuting frogs and use these data paired with previously generated double digest restriction‐site associated DNA (ddRADseq) data to estimate population structure and genetic diversity, to test for population size changes using demographic modelling, and to estimate the temporal clustering of size change events using a full‐likelihood Bayesian method. We find that populations around Toba exhibit reduced genetic diversity compared with southern populations, and that northern populations exhibit a shift in effective population size around the time of the eruption (~80 kya). However, we infer a stronger signal of expansion in southern populations around ~400 kya, and at least two of the northern populations may have also expanded at this time. Taken together, these findings suggest that the Toba eruption precipitated population declines in northern populations, but that the demographic history of these three species was also strongly impacted by mid‐Pleistocene forest expansion during glacial periods. We propose local rather than regional effects of the Toba eruption, and emphasize the dynamic nature of diversification on the Sunda Shelf.

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