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  1. Annealing of amorphous optical coatings has been shown to generally reduce optical absorption, optical scattering, and mechanical loss, with higher temperature annealing giving better results. The achievable maximum temperatures are limited to the levels at which coating damage, such as crystallization, cracking, or bubbling, will occur. Coating damage caused by heating is typically only observed statically after annealing. An experimental method to dynamically observe how and over what temperature range such damage occurs during annealing is desirable as its results could inform manufacturing and annealing processes to ultimately achieve better coating performance. We developed a new, to the best of our knowledge, instrument that features an industrial annealing oven with holes cut into its sides for viewports to illuminate optical samples and observe their coating scatter and eventual damage mechanismsin situand in real time during annealing. We present results that demonstratein situobservation of changes to titania-doped tantala coatings on fused silica substrates. We obtain a spatial image (mapping) of the evolution of these changes during annealing, an advantage overxray diffraction, electron beam, or Raman methods. We infer, based on other experiments in the literature, these changes to be due to crystallization. We further discuss themore »utility of this apparatus for observing other forms of coating damage such as cracking and blisters.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 9, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  3. During in-hand manipulation, robots must be able to continuously estimate the pose of the object in order to generate appropriate control actions. The performance of algorithms for pose estimation hinges on the robot's sensors being able to detect discriminative geometric object features, but previous sensing modalities are unable to make such measurements robustly. The robot's fingers can occlude the view of environment- or robot-mounted image sensors, and tactile sensors can only measure at the local areas of contact. Motivated by fingertip-embedded proximity sensors' robustness to occlusion and ability to measure beyond the local areas of contact, we present the first evaluation of proximity sensor based pose estimation for in-hand manipulation. We develop a novel two-fingered hand with fingertip-embedded optical time-of-flight proximity sensors as a testbed for pose estimation during planar in-hand manipulation. Here, the in-hand manipulation task consists of the robot moving a cylindrical object from one end of its workspace to the other. We demonstrate, with statistical significance, that proximity-sensor based pose estimation via particle filtering during in-hand manipulation: a) exhibits 50% lower average pose error than a tactile-sensor based baseline; b) empowers a model predictive controller to achieve 30% lower final positioning error compared to when using tactile-sensormore »based pose estimates.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 23, 2023
  4. Sargent, R. ; Sytchkova, A. (Ed.)

    Air annealing generally reduces absorption, scattering, and mechanical loss in amorphous coatings up to temperatures where damage occurs. Our instrument uses an industrial oven with viewports to observe coating scatter and damage during annealing.

  5. Realizing the vision of ubiquitous battery-free sensing has proven to be challenging, mainly due to the practical energy and range limitations of current wireless communication systems. To address this, we design the first wide-area and scalable backscatter network with multiple receivers (RX) and transmitters (TX) base units to communicate with battery-free sensor nodes. Our system circumvents the inherent limitations of backscatter systems--including the limited coverage area, frequency-dependent operability, and sensor node limitations in handling network tasks--by introducing several coordination techniques between the base units starting from a single RX-TX pair to networks with many RX and TX units. We build low-cost RX and TX base units and battery-free sensor nodes with multiple sensing modalities and evaluate the performance of the MultiScatter system in various deployments. Our evaluation shows that we can successfully communicate with battery-free sensor nodes across 23400 square feet of a two-floor educational complex using 5 RX and 20 TX units, costing $569. Also, we show that the aggregated throughput of the backscatter network increases linearly as the number of RX units and the network coverage grows.
  6. Optical coatings formed from amorphous oxide thin films have many applications in precision measurements. The Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Advanced Virgo use coatings ofSiO2(silica) andTiO2:Ta2O5(titania-doped tantala) and post-deposition annealing to 500°C to achieve low thermal noise and low optical absorption. Optical scattering by these coatings is a key limit to the sensitivity of the detectors. This paper describes optical scattering measurements for single-layer, ion-beam-sputtered thin films on fused silica substrates: two samples ofTa2O5and two ofTiO2:Ta2O5. Using an imaging scatterometer at a fixed scattering angle of 12.8°, in-situ changes in the optical scatter of each sample were assessed during post-deposition annealing to 500°C in vacuum. The scatter of three of the four coated optics was observed to decrease during the annealing process, by 25–30% for tantala and up to 74% for titania-doped tantala, while the scatter frommore »the fourth sample held constant. Angle-resolved scatter measurements performed before and after vacuum annealing suggest some improvement in three of the four samples. These results demonstrate that post-deposition, high-temperature annealing of single-layer tantala and titania-doped tantala thin films in vacuum does not lead to an increase in scatter, and may actually improve their scatter.

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  7. Although general purpose robotic manipulators are becoming more capable at manipulating various objects, their ability to manipulate millimeter-scale objects are usually limited. On the other hand, ultrasonic levitation devices have been shown to levitate a large range of small objects, from polystyrene balls to living organisms. By controlling the acoustic force fields, ultrasonic levitation devices can compensate for robot manipulator positioning uncertainty and control the grasping force exerted on the target object. The material agnostic nature of acoustic levitation devices and their ability to dexterously manipulate millimeter-scale objects make them appealing as a grasping mode for general purpose robots. In this work, we present an ultrasonic, contact-less manipulation device that can be attached to or picked up by any general purpose robotic arm, enabling millimeter-scale manipulation with little to no modification to the robot itself. This device is capable of performing the very first phase-controlled picking action on acoustically reflective surfaces. With the manipulator placed around the target object, the manipulator can grasp objects smaller in size than the robot's positioning uncertainty, trap the object to resist air currents during robot movement, and dexterously hold a small and fragile object, like a flower bud. Due to the contact-less nature ofmore »the ultrasound-based gripper, a camera positioned to look into the cylinder can inspect the object without occlusion, facilitating accurate visual feature extraction.« less
  8. Backscatter communication has been a popular choice in low-power/battery-free sensor nodes development. However, the effect of RF source to receiver distance on the operating range of this communication system has not been modeled accurately. In this paper, we propose a model for a bistatic backscatter system coverage map based on the receiver selectivity, receiver sensitivity, and geometric placement of the receiver, RF source, and the tag. To verify our proposed model and simulations, we perform an experiment using a low-cost commercial BLE receiver and a custom-designed BLE backscatter tag. We also show that the receiver selectivity might depend on the interference level, and present measurement results to signify how this dependence relates the system bit error rate to the RF excitation power.
  9. Occupancy detection systems are commonly equipped with high quality cameras and a processor with high computational power to run detection algorithms. This paper presents a human occupancy detection system that uses battery-free cameras and a deep learning model implemented on a low-cost hub to detect human presence. Our low-resolution camera harvests energy from ambient light and transmits data to the hub using backscatter communication. We implement the state-of-the-art YOLOv5 network detection algorithm that offers high detection accuracy and fast inferencing speed on a Raspberry Pi 4 Model B. We achieve an inferencing speed of ∼100ms per image and an overall detection accuracy of >90% with only 2GB CPU RAM on the Raspberry Pi. In the experimental results, we also demonstrate that the detection is robust to noise, illuminance, occlusion, and angle of depression.