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  1. Variational Quantum Algorithms (VQA) are one of the most promising candidates for near-term quantum advantage. Traditionally, these algorithms are parameterized by rotational gate angles whose values are tuned over iterative execution on quantum machines. The iterative tuning of these gate angle parameters make VQAs more robust to a quantum machine’s noise profile. However, the effect of noise is still a significant detriment to VQA’s target estimations on real quantum machines — they are far from ideal. Thus, it is imperative to employ effective error mitigation strategies to improve the fidelity of these quantum algorithms on near-term machines.While existing error mitigation techniques built from theory do provide substantial gains, the disconnect between theory and real machine execution characteristics limit the scope of these improvements. Thus, it is critical to optimize mitigation techniques to explicitly suit the target application as well as the noise characteristics of the target machine.We propose VAQEM, which dynamically tailors existing error mitigation techniques to the actual, dynamic noisy execution characteristics of VQAs on a target quantum machine. We do so by tuning specific features of these mitigation techniques similar to the traditional rotation angle parameters -by targeting improvements towards a specific objective function which represents the VQAmore »problem at hand. In this paper, we target two types of error mitigation techniques which are suited to idle times in quantum circuits: single qubit gate scheduling and the insertion of dynamical decoupling sequences. We gain substantial improvements to VQA objective measurements — a mean of over 3x across a variety of VQA applications, run on IBM Quantum machines.More importantly, while we study two specific error mitigation techniques, the proposed variational approach is general and can be extended to many other error mitigation techniques whose specific configurations are hard to select a priori. Integrating more mitigation techniques into the VAQEM framework in the future can lead to further formidable gains, potentially realizing practically useful VQA benefits on today’s noisy quantum machines.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  2. As the popularity of quantum computing continues to grow, quantum machine access over the cloud is critical to both academic and industry researchers across the globe. And as cloud quantum computing demands increase exponentially, the analysis of resource consumption and execution characteristics are key to efficient management of jobs and resources at both the vendor-end as well as the client-end. While the analysis of resource consumption and management are popular in the classical HPC domain, it is severely lacking for more nascent technology like quantum computing. This paper is a first-of-its-kind academic study, analyzing various trends in job execution and resources consumption / utilization on quantum cloud systems. We focus on IBM Quantum systems and analyze characteristics over a two year period, encompassing over 6000 jobs which contain over 600,000 quantum circuit executions and correspond to almost 10 billion “shots” or trials over 20+ quantum machines. Specifically, we analyze trends focused on, but not limited to, execution times on quantum machines, queuing/waiting times in the cloud, circuit compilation times, machine utilization, as well as the impact of job and machine characteristics on all of these trends. Our analysis identifies several similarities and differences with classical HPC cloud systems. Based onmore »our insights, we make recommendations and contributions to improve the management of resources and jobs on future quantum cloud systems.« less
  3. As the popularity of quantum computing continues to grow, efficient quantum machine access over the cloud is critical to both academic and industry researchers across the globe. And as cloud quantum computing demands increase exponentially, the analysis of resource consumption and execution characteristics are key to efficient management of jobs and resources at both the vendor-end as well as the client-end. While the analysis and optimization of job / resource consumption and management are popular in the classical HPC domain, it is severely lacking for more nascent technology like quantum computing.This paper proposes optimized adaptive job scheduling to the quantum cloud taking note of primary characteristics such as queuing times and fidelity trends across machines, as well as other characteristics such as quality of service guarantees and machine calibration constraints. Key components of the proposal include a) a prediction model which predicts fidelity trends across machine based on compiled circuit features such as circuit depth and different forms of errors, as well as b) queuing time prediction for each machine based on execution time estimations.Overall, this proposal is evaluated on simulated IBM machines across a diverse set of quantum applications and system loading scenarios, and is able to reduce waitmore »times by over 3x and improve fidelity by over 40% on specific usecases, when compared to traditional job schedulers.« less