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    The progenitor of SN 2023ixf was an ∼104.8 to $10^{5.0}\, \text{L}_\odot$ star (∼9 to $14\, \text{M}_\odot$ at birth) obscured by a dusty $\dot{M} \simeq 10^{-5}\, \text{M}_\odot \rm \, yr^{-1}$ wind with a visual optical depth of τV ≃ 13. This is required by the progenitor spectral energy distribution, the post-SN X-ray and H α luminosities, and the X-ray column density estimates. In Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) data spanning 5600 to 400 d before the supernova (SN), there is no evidence for optical variability at the level of $\sim 10^3\, \text{L}_\odot$ in R band, roughly three times the predicted luminosity of the obscured progenitor. This constrains direct observation of any pre-SN optical outbursts where there are LBT observations. However, models of the effects of any pre-SN outburst on the dusty wind show that an outburst of essentially any duration exceeding ∼5 times the luminosity of the progenitor would have detectable effects on the dust optical depth for decades. While the dust obscuration here is high, all red supergiants have dusty winds, and the destruction (or formation) of dust by even short-lived transients will always have long-term effects on the observed brightness of the star because changes in the dust optical depths after a luminous transient occur very slowly.

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  2. Weathering, erosion, and sediment transport in modern landscapes may be investigated via direct observation of attributes such as elevation, relief, bedrock lithology, climate, drainage organization, watershed extent, and others. Studies of ancient landscape evolution lack this synoptic perspective, however, and instead must rely more heavily on downstream records of fluvial deposits. Provenance analysis based on detrital grain ages has greatly enhanced the utility of such records but has often focused broadly on regional to continental scales. This approach may overlook important details of localized watersheds, which could lead to significant misinterpretation of past sediment dispersal patterns. The present study, therefore, explores the impact of geographic and stratigraphic sampling density on detrital zircon provenance, based on a high-density investigation of U-Pb ages (N = 23, n = 4905) obtained from a narrow chronostratigraphic range (∼2 m.y.) within a relatively small (∼25,000 km2) area of an Eocene nonmarine sedimentary basin. Based on multi-dimensional scaling and DZmix modeling, these strata comprise seven distinct, approximately isochronous detrital zircon (DZ) chronofacies, defined as “. . . a group of sedimentary rocks that contains a specified suite of detrital zircon age populations” (Lawton et al., 2010). Four of these DZ chronofacies reflect long-distance transport from extrabasinal source areas. DZ chronofacies CO-1 and CO-2 are interpreted to derive from a primary sediment source in central Colorado (USA), corroborating previously proposed long-distance sediment transport via the Aspen paleoriver. DZ chronofacies ID-1 and ID-2 are interpreted to have been delivered to the basin from central Idaho by the Idaho paleoriver. In contrast, DZ chronofacies UT-1 and UT-2 are interpreted to reflect local drainage from the Uinta Uplift south of the basin, and DZ chronofacies WY-1 is interpreted to have been sourced from the Rawlins, Granite, and Sierra Madre uplifts to the north and east via the Toya Puki paleoriver. Lateral transitions between different DZ chronofacies in some cases occur over distances as little as 5 km, implying that depositional systems carrying sand from disparate watersheds directly competed to fill available basin accommodation. The results of this study reveal a high degree of complexity of Eocene rivers that converged on the Greater Green River Basin, indicating that their deposits contain a rich record of fine-scale landscape evolution across much of the Laramide foreland and Cordilleran orogen. These results illustrate the need for adequate sample density when assessing basin-scale provenance and offer a cautionary consideration for researchers using sandstone (and incorporated authigenic cement) in other nonmarine basins as the basis for paleoaltimetry or detrital thermochronology studies.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 5, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
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  5. Abstract

    The Maine Department of Marine Resources (MEDMR) is a state agency tasked with developing, conserving, researching, and promoting commercial and recreational marine fisheries across Maine’s vast coastline. Close collaborations with industry members in each of the 30 or more fisheries that support Maine’s coastal economy are central to MEDMR’s efforts to address this suite of tasks. Here we reflect on recent decades of MEDMR's work and demonstrate how MEDMR fisheries research programmes are preparing for an uncertain future through the lens of three broadly applicable climate-driven challenges: (1) a rapidly changing marine ecosystem; (2) recommendations driven by state and federal climate initiatives; and (3) the need to share institutional knowledge with a new generation of marine resource scientists. We do this by highlighting our scientific and co-management approach to coastal Maine fisheries that have prospered, declined, or followed a unique trend over the last 25+ years. We use these examples to illustrate our lessons learned when studying a diverse array of fisheries, highlight the importance of collaborations with academia and the commercial fishing industry, and share our recommendations to marine resource scientists for addressing the climate-driven challenges that motivated this work.

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  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  7. Context. Recent developments in time domain astronomy, such as Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF), have made it possible to conduct daily scans of the entire visible sky, leading to the discovery of hundreds of new transients every night. Among these detections, 10 to 15 of these objects are supernovae (SNe), which have to be classified prior to cosmological use. The spectral energy distribution machine (SEDM) is a low-resolution ( ℛ ~ 100) integral field spectrograph designed, built, and operated with the aim of spectroscopically observing and classifying targets detected by the ZTF main camera. Aims. As the current pysedm pipeline can only handle isolated point sources, it is limited by contamination when the transient is too close to its host galaxy core. This can lead to an incorrect typing and ultimately bias the cosmological analyses, affecting the homogeneity of the SN sample in terms of local environment properties. We present a new scene modeler to extract the transient spectrum from its structured background, with the aim of improving the typing efficiency of the SEDM. Methods. H yper G al is a fully chromatic scene modeler that uses archival pre-transient photometric images of the SN environment to generate a hyperspectral model of the host galaxy. It is based on the cigale SED fitter used as a physically-motivated spectral interpolator. The galaxy model, complemented by a point source for the transient and a diffuse background component, is projected onto the SEDM spectro-spatial observation space and adjusted to observations, and the SN spectrum is ultimately extracted from this multi-component model. The full procedure, from scene modeling to transient spectrum extraction and typing, is validated on 5000 simulated cubes built from actual SEDM observations of isolated host galaxies, covering a broad range of observing conditions and scene parameters. Results. We introduce the contrast, c , as the transient-to-total flux ratio at the SN location, integrated over the ZTF r -band. From estimated contrast distribution of real SEDm observations, we show that H yper G al correctly classifies ~95% of SNe Ia, and up to 99% for contrast c ≳ 0.2, representing more than 90% of the observations. Compared to the standard point-source extraction method (without the hyperspectral galaxy modeling step), H yper G al correctly classifies 20% more SNe Ia between 0.1 < c < 0.6 (50% of the observation conditions), with less than 5% of SN Ia misidentifications. The false-positive rate is less than 2% for c > 0.1 (> 99% of the observations), which represents half as much as the standard extraction method. Assuming a similar contrast distribution for core-collapse SNe, H yper G al classifies 14% additional SNe II and 11% additional SNe Ibc. Conclusions. H yper G al has proven to be extremely effective in extracting and classifying SNe in the presence of strong contamination by the host galaxy, providing a significant improvement with respect to the single point-source extraction. 
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  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024

    An open question in SN Ia research is where the boundary lies between ‘normal’ Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that are used in cosmological measurements and those that sit off the Phillips relation. We present the spectroscopic modelling of one such ‘86G-like’ transitional SN Ia, SN 2021rhu, that has recently been employed as a local Hubble Constant calibrator using a tip of the red-giant branch measurement. We detail its modelling from −12 d until maximum brightness using the radiative-transfer spectral-synthesis code tardis. Please check and correct this paper accordingly. We base our modelling on literature delayed-detonation and deflagration models of Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs, as well as the double-detonation models of sub-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs. We present a new method for ‘projecting’ abundance profiles to different density profiles for ease of computation. Due to the small velocity extent and low outer densities of the W7 profile, we find it inadequate to reproduce the evolution of SN 2021rhu as it fails to match the high-velocity calcium components. The host extinction of SN 2021rhu is uncertain but we use modelling with and without an extinction correction to set lower and upper limits on the abundances of individual species. Comparing these limits to literature models we conclude that the spectral evolution of SN 2021rhu is also incompatible with double-detonation scenarios, lying more in line with those resulting from the delayed-detonation mechanism (although there are some discrepancies, in particular a larger titanium abundance in SN 2021rhu compared to the literature). This suggests that SN 2021rhu is likely a lower luminosity, and hence lower temperature, version of a normal SN Ia.

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  10. Mineralogy, petrographic textures, and sedimentary structures from the world’s largest trona deposit, the Wilkins Peak Member (WPM) of the early Eocene Green River Formation (GRF), Bridger subbasin, Wyoming, provide key data about depositional conditions and paleoenvironments. The 250 m-long WPM interval in the Solvay S-34-1 drill core analyzed in this study contains a detailed record of sedimentation in the Bridger subbasin at the deepest area of a hydrologically-closed basin during peak Cenozoic atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Large accumulations of trona (Na3(HCO3)(CO3)·2H2O), shortite (Na2Ca2(CO3)3), northupite (Na3Mg (CO3)2Cl), and halite (NaCl; now replaced by trona), occur in the lower half of the WPM. Modern saline lake environments such as Lake Magadi, Kenya, and the Dead Sea, Israel-Jordan, are useful analogues for interpreting paleolake conditions associated with evaporite deposition in the Solvay S-34-1 core. Solvay saline lake deposits are organized into meter-scale shallowing-upward successions, beginning with (1) oil shale overlain by (2) trona, in places interbedded with oil shale, followed by (3) peloidal dolomite grainstone and/or silty dolomitic mudstone, and (4) massive mudstone with disruption features or desiccation cracks, and/or siliciclastic sandstone with ripple cross-stratification. Based on observations of modern hypersaline lake environments, WPM evaporite deposition at the basin depocenter is interpreted to be controlled by inflow water composition and volume, evaporative concentration, and seasonally-driven lake temperature fluctuations, resulting in recurrent patterns in evaporite mineralogies and textures. 
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