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  1. Abstract

    This study describes computer simulations of carbonization and graphite formation, including the effects of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. We introduce a novel technique to simulate carbonization, ‘Simulation of Thermal Emission of Atoms and Molecules (STEAM)’, designed to elucidate volatile outgassing and density variations in the intermediate material during carbonization. The investigation analyzes the functional groups that endure through high-temperature carbonization and examines the graphitization processes in carbon-rich materials containing non-carbon impurity elements. The physical, vibrational, and electronic attributes of impure amorphous graphite are analyzed, and the impact of nitrogen on electronic conduction is investigated.

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  2. Abstract

    Theory predicts that rising CO2increases global photosynthesis, a process known as CO2fertilization, and that this is responsible for much of the current terrestrial carbon sink. The estimated magnitude of the historic CO2fertilization, however, differs by an order of magnitude between long-term proxies, remote sensing-based estimates and terrestrial biosphere models. Here we constrain the likely historic effect of CO2on global photosynthesis by combining terrestrial biosphere models, ecological optimality theory, remote sensing approaches and an emergent constraint based on global carbon budget estimates. Our analysis suggests that CO2fertilization increased global annual terrestrial photosynthesis by 13.5 ± 3.5% or 15.9 ± 2.9 PgC (mean ± s.d.) between 1981 and 2020. Our results help resolve conflicting estimates of the historic sensitivity of global terrestrial photosynthesis to CO2and highlight the large impact anthropogenic emissions have had on ecosystems worldwide.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    We present photometric and spectroscopic data for SN 2022joj, a nearby peculiar Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) with a fast decline rate (Δm15,B= 1.4 mag). SN 2022joj shows exceedingly red colors, with a value of approximatelyBV≈ 1.1 mag during its initial stages, beginning from 11 days before maximum brightness. As it evolves, the flux shifts toward the blue end of the spectrum, approachingBV≈ 0 mag around maximum light. Furthermore, at maximum light and beyond, the photometry is consistent with that of typical SNe Ia. This unusual behavior extends to its spectral characteristics, which initially displayed a red spectrum and later evolved to exhibit greater consistency with typical SNe Ia. Spectroscopically, we find strong agreement between SN 2022joj and double detonation models with white dwarf masses of around 1Mand a thin He shell between 0.01 and 0.05M. Moreover, the early red colors are explained by line-blanketing absorption from iron peak elements created by the double detonation scenario in similar mass ranges. The nebular spectra in SN 2022joj deviate from expectations for double detonation, as we observe strong [Feiii] emission instead of [Caii] lines as anticipated, though this is not as robust a prediction as early red colors and spectra. The fact that as He shells get thinner these SNe start to look more like normal SNe Ia raises the possibility that this is the triggering mechanism for the majority of SNe Ia, though evidence would be missed if the SNe are not observed early enough.

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  4. Background The distribution of resources can affect animal range sizes, which in turn may alter infectious disease dynamics in heterogenous environments. The risk of pathogen exposure or the spatial extent of outbreaks may vary with host range size. This study examined the range sizes of herbivorous anthrax host species in two ecosystems and relationships between spatial behavior and patterns of disease outbreaks for a multi-host environmentally transmitted pathogen. Methods We examined range sizes for seven host species and the spatial extent of anthrax outbreaks in Etosha National Park, Namibia and Kruger National Park, South Africa, where the main host species and numbers of cases differ. We evaluated host range sizes using the local convex hull method at different temporal scales, within-individual temporal range overlap, and relationships between ranging behavior and species contributions to anthrax cases in each park. We estimated the spatial extent of annual anthrax mortalities and evaluated whether the extent was correlated with case numbers of a given host species. Results Range size differences among species were not linearly related to anthrax case numbers. In Kruger the main host species had small range sizes and high range overlap, which may heighten exposure when outbreaks occur within their ranges. However, different patterns were observed in Etosha, where the main host species had large range sizes and relatively little overlap. The spatial extent of anthrax mortalities was similar between parks but less variable in Etosha than Kruger. In Kruger outbreaks varied from small local clusters to large areas and the spatial extent correlated with case numbers and species affected. Case numbers of secondary host species with larger range sizes were positively correlated with the spatial extent of outbreaks in both parks. Conclusions Our results provide new information on the spatiotemporal structuring of ranging movements of anthrax host species in two ecosystems. The results linking anthrax dynamics to host space use are correlative, yet suggest that, though partial and proximate, host range size and overlap may be contributing factors in outbreak characteristics for environmentally transmitted pathogens. 
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  5. Invasive species alter invaded ecosystems via direct impacts such as consumption. In turn, an invasive species’ ability to thrive in new habitats depends on its ability to exploit available resources, which may change over time and space. Diet quality and quantity are indicators of a consumer’s consumptive effects and can be strongly influenced by season and latitude. We examined the effects of season and latitude on the diet quality and quantity of the invasive Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus throughout a non-winter sampling year at 5 different sites spanning 8° of latitude across its invaded United States range. We found that diet quality, averaged through time, largely follows an expected latitudinal cline, being higher in the center of its range and lower toward the southern and northern edges. We also found that while some sites show similar patterns of diet quality variation with season, no pattern is consistent across all latitudes. Finally, we found that crabs at sites with low diet quality during summer reproductive months did not compensate by increasing total consumption. Because the Asian shore crab is an important consumer in its invaded ecosystems, understanding how its diet quality and quantity vary with season and latitude can help us better understand how this species influences trophic interactions and community structure, how it has been able to establish across a wide ecological and environmental range, and where future range expansion is most likely to occur. 
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  6. Abstract

    In high energy physics (HEP), analysis metadata comes in many forms—from theoretical cross-sections, to calibration corrections, to details about file processing. Correctly applying metadata is a crucial and often time-consuming step in an analysis, but designing analysis metadata systems has historically received little direct attention. Among other considerations, an ideal metadata tool should be easy to use by new analysers, should scale to large data volumes and diverse processing paradigms, and should enable future analysis reinterpretation. This document, which is the product of community discussions organised by the HEP Software Foundation, categorises types of metadata by scope and format and gives examples of current metadata solutions. Important design considerations for metadata systems, including sociological factors, analysis preservation efforts, and technical factors, are discussed. A list of best practices and technical requirements for future analysis metadata systems is presented. These best practices could guide the development of a future cross-experimental effort for analysis metadata tools.

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